Manganese is found native in the form of the black oxide. Not official as such.
Manganese is found in the human body associated with iron. They are found together in the blood, hair, and bile, the proportion in the blood being 1 part of manganese to 20 of iron. The preparations of manganese are gastro-intestinal irritants. In small doses they aid digestion and promote appetite. They enter the blood probably as albuminates. Used in excess they lower the heart action, diminish the pulse rate, and cause loss of muscular power and paralysis.
Made from the black oxide of manganese, potassium chlorate, and a solution of caustic potash, by a very elaborate chemical process. It has the form of dark-purple slender prisms, inodorous, with an astringent, sweet taste; soluble in 16 parts of water. It should be kept in the dark.
Potassium permanganate in the pure state is irritant and caustic. In solution it is stimulating and healing. In the latter form it gives out oxygen in the form of ozone, and changes into hydrated peroxide of manganese, losing its purple color and becoming brown. This change does not occur with the crystals.
This oxidizing power gives it special attributes as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and deodorant, but practically it is not useful in disinfecting excreta, as the amount required to be effectual would make it enormously expensive.
It is oftenest and most satisfactorily used as a deodorizer, in the one-per-cent solution, as a wash, douche, spray, or gargle, for foul, carious, or gangrenous discharges. It is also used in skin disinfection, in a supersaturated solution.
Given internally, the dose, gr. ss.-ii., is freely diluted with distilled water; or, if given in pellets, boiled or filtered water should be given with it to dilute it after being swallowed. It should be given on an empty stomach.
In full doses an emetic and cathartic, with action on the liver, as is shown by the bile discharged after purgative doses. Dose, gr. ii.-v. (0.1-0.3 Gm.)