This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
(Published In 1894.)
The New York Infirmary for Women and Children is located on Livingston Place, New York City. Its plumbing was intended to be of the simplest character consistent with excellence, and to be especially adapted to the hospital requirements and to the structural conditions of the edifice. Detailed drawings were prepared showing the exact position of every fixture and the sizes, lengths, and locations of pipe lines, and all valves, bends, cleanouts, traps, and other pipe fittings, and from these drawings and the comprehensive specifications the estimates and bids for contracts were made. The accompanying illustrations are prepared from these original drawings, which show the principal plans and elevations. The plans for the plumbing were drawn by A. L. Webster, of New York City, and the work was done by W. H. Alexander, of Englewood, N. J.
The water supply from the street is commanded by a 2 ½ - inch brass gate valve and wheel in a covered masonry box at the front area wall, whence a 2½ -inch pipe is carried under the basement floor in a masonry main drain trench, and on the cellar ceiling to the valve board in the basement. Here branch lines and control valves are arranged as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Before reaching the valve board the main supplies a 2-inch branch with a stop to the pump in the cellar, and a ¾-inch branch with a stop to the kitchen sink, and a 2-inch branch to supply the steam boilers in the cellar. The hot-air pump delivers through a 2½-inch riser to a 4,000-gallon covered cedar roof tank, which is strongly bound with adjustable wrought-iron bands. Six inches below the top of the tank is a 3-inch overflow to the roof and a 1- inch draw-off with a valve at the bottom into the overflow. A 2½-inch house supply and fire line is valved at the bottom of tank and runs to the valve board in the basement. This has 2-inch branches and screw plugs for fire purposes on each floor. A ½-inch telltale pipe runs from the top of the tank and discharges with a brass flap into a telltale sink in the cellar.
Street pressure hot and cold water is arranged to supply the cellar boilers, basement and first-story fixtures, and front and rear yard hydrants. All hot water for the building is furnished by two galvanized-iron heavy boilers (200 gallons street pressure and 400 gallons tank pressure), with interior spiral brass tubes, heated by steam from the steam boiler. Hot tank and street circulation returns are carried from the tops of all hot risers to valve board in basement and returned thence to the hot boilers. All high-pressure hot risers are extended to and above the house tank to serve as expansion pipes. All wastes are carried to telltale sink under the basement ceiling. All water pipes are heavy galvanized iron, exposed throughout. Traps and back-air connections are lead.
Waste and back-air pipes are of cast iron. All branch connections are Y's and one-eighth bends. Y-branch connections were required to be well turned up. Brass extra-heavy screw cleanouts with ferrules calked into iron pipe are set to command all bends and horizontal sections of drain pip'es. All hot and cold-water pipes have 12-inch extensions beyond faucets to prevent water hammer. All pipes exposed to frost are packed with extra-quality mineral wool with painted canvas covers. Hot and cold-water pipes are spaced 2 inches apart, and steam and cold-water pipes 6 inches apart. Unions are placed at frequent intervals to allow the pipe lines to be easily disconnected for changes and repairs. Finished nickel-plated stop and wastes with number tag are put on all branch lines on each floor to shut off individual groups of fixtures. All mains are carried to the valve board in the basement, and all the distributing risers are taken from this point to all fixtures. All branches to the basement fixtures are hung on the basement ceiling and drop to the fixtures. All branches on the upper floors are hung on the ceiling of the room below and rise to fixtures above. All openings in the floors and ceilings for lines of pipe are entirely closed and packed with mineral wool so as to completely seal the opening. All roof joints are flashed with six pounds sheet lead, and all open ends above the roof are protected with wire globe cages. Each vertical column of pipes is solidly.and entirely supported on a I2x12-inch brick pier, built before the application of the water tests. All horizontal or inclined lead pipes are supported for the en.
Section - Columns B and C.
Section - Column A.,.
Fig. 5. PLUMBING IN A NEW YORK INFIRMARY.
tire length on shelves or wooden carrying strips. All pipes are laid to drain completely.
The main drain pipes are laid below the basement floor in a brick drain trench with 16 inches clear width inside. The bottom of the trench is of 3 inches concrete with half-inch Portland cement finish, troweled smooth. The trench begins at the front area wall and extends back with a continuous rising grade of one-fourth inch to the foot. The side walls of the trench are 12 inches thick where more than 2 feet below the surface, elsewhere 8 inches thick. The trench is covered with 2½ -inch hammer-dressed blue-stone flags flush with the floor, cut with perfect joints, laid in Portland cement, and having full 4-inch bearings on each side wall. There is also a masonry trench under the laundry floor to carry floor drain and a 3-inch and 2-inch line to laundry tubs and laundry machinery. The mortar was mixed 1 part cement to 2 parts sand; concrete 1 of cement, 2 of sand, 3 of 2-inch broken stone. Over the main house trap in the front is set a 16 x16-inch iron cover countersunk into the stone and with countersunk lifting ring, and over the rain leader trap a Ioxio-inch cast-iron cover countersunk flush with the surface. At the front wall is set an 8-inch running trap with brass screw-cover cleanout and a 6 inch fresh-air inlet to the front curb with brick box and iron grating let into the flag, hinged and with street wash lock and key.