The procuring of a water supply in the country depends largely upon the surrounding conditions. Of course, when the source of the water supply is at a higher level than the house, a gravity system is the least complicated, and very often the cheapest. When the house is located at a reasonable height above the water supply, which could be made to supply an eight or ten-foot head, the hydraulic ram could be used. Earns will work, and work successfully, where the spring or brook is only three feet higher than the ram head, as the height or head increases the more powerfully the ram operates, and its ability to force water to a greater elevation and distance correspondingly strengthens. The best wearing results will be secured where the head or fall does not exceed ten feet; the head on the discharge pipe may be from five to ten times the head on the drive pipe. As a specific example: It might be said a fall of ten feet from brook or spring to the ram is sufficient to raise water to any point, say 150 feet above the machine, while the same amount of fall would also raise water to a point considerably higher, though the quantity of water discharged will be proportionately diminished as the height and distance increase.

Rule for Estimating Delivery of Water. Multiply the number of gallons supplied to the ram per minute by three, and this product by the number of feet in head or fall of drive pipe, and divide by four times the number of feet to be raised. The result is the number of gallons raised per minute. Example: With a supply of ten gallons per minute delivered to a ram under a head or fall of ten feet, how much water can be raised to an elevation of 100 feet?

10 X 3 X 10 / 100 X 4 =.75 gallons per minute.

To obtain a water supply which will deliver water at any faucet in a house, yard or barn, it is necessary not only to pump the water, but to have some means of storing it under pressure. The elevated tank delivers it by gravity pressure, and, when used, should be placed at least eight to ten feet above the highest point from which the water is to be drawn, to insure a respectable velocity of discharge.

Compressed Air System. The principle of delivering water and other liquids by pressure of compressed air is very old, but it was not until recently that this principle was employed to furnish domestic water supply.

One of the greatest advantages of the compressed air system is that it does away with the elevated tank, and there are a great many defects in the elevated tank system. If placed in the attic, it is not high enough to afford a sufficient pressure to be any protection against fire. Another objection is the weight of the tank, when filled with water, is very liable to crack the plastering and to leak. Another serious defect of the elevated tank, when placed in an attic or on a tower is the exposure to weather, in the winter it freezes and in the summer it becomes warm.

In the compressed air system the tank is placed either in the ground below the frost line or in the basement, and the water is pumped into the bottom of the tank with a force pump, which may be operated by hand, windmill, gas engine or hot-air engine. Another opening in the bottom delivers water to the faucet in the house, yard or barn. As the water is pumped into the bottom of the tank the air above it, not having an outlet, is compressed. This pressure is increased and maintained by an automatic air valve. It does away with the elevated tank, and delivers water at an even temperature all year around. The tank and pipes leading to and from it are protected from the weather. A pressure of fifty pounds is easily obtained, which equals the pressure from an elevated tank one hundred and ten feet high. This affords first-class fire protection and enables the country residents to have all the sanitary conveniences of a city home. A double system of this kind can also be installed, one for furnishing well or drinking water to the fixtures, and another one supplying soft water from the cistern.

In Fig. 6 a steel storage tank is shown buried in the ground below the frost line, water is pumped into it by hand or windmill. This pump forces both air and water into the tank at the same time. A connection run to the surface near the house to a yard hydrant with hose connection furnishes water for sprinkling and fire protection, another branch supplies water to the barn, under pressure.

In Fig. 7 a steel storage tank is shown placed in the basement and supplied with a hand pump. These two illustrations will serve to give some idea of the extent to which a system of this kind can be put to use. The tank is practically indestructible, and, unlike the elevated tank, requires no expense after it has been put in. When the tank is one-half full of water, the air which originally filled the entire tank will be compressed into the upper half of it and will exert a pressure of fifteen pounds to the square inch, and if a straight supply pipe was run from the bottom of the tank, this air pressure would force the water to a height of thirty-three feet. For ordinary elevation the best results are obtained by maintaining in the tank excess air pressure of ten pounds, that is, enough air to give ten pounds pressure when the tank contains no water. Thus equipped, a tank will deliver twice as much water as otherwise.

Fig. 6

Fig. 7.

Most of the country towns at the present day are supplied with efficient water systems, and it is a very easy matter to install a hydraulic system which supplies hot and cold soft water to every fixture in the house automatically and all of the time. One of the principal objects desired in the hydraulic system is to utilize the waste water from the hydraulic pump so that there will be no loss, which is quite an item when the water is paid for at so much per thousand feet.

The system shown in Fig. 8 is a very simple and inexpensive one. The city water supply is run direct to the hydraulic pump, and the city water passing through it is piped direct to the fixtures at which cold hard water is desired. In the drawing this pipe supplies the closet tank and one faucet over the lavatory for drinking purposes in the bathroom, also one faucet over the sink and two connections to laundry tub, which is very convenient, as the cold water can be utilized for rinsing purposes, thereby saving a great deal of the soft water. The operation of the same is, that when any of these five faucets are opened, it permits the city water to pass through the pump and at the same time operate the pump, which pumps soft water from the cistern to the tank in the attic from which a pipe is run down to the basement with branches taken off at the different floors to supply cold soft water, hence, to the hot water heater tank, from there on to the heater, back to the tank and around to the different fixtures supplying hot soft water. The return pipe prevents a dead end which necessitates wasting the soft water before the hot water begins to flow.

Fig. 8. Three-Pipe System

A method is shown whereby it is possible when the cistern is emptied to fill either the city water supply only with city water, or the entire system without its passing through the pump by the manipulation of three globe valves, designated as A, B and C. When the pump is pumping cistern water to the attic tank, valve B and C are closed, and valve A is opened. When the cistern is emptied, and it is desired to fill only the cold city water pipe with water, leave valve C closed, close valve A and open valve B, which permits the water to flow into the cold water pipe without passing through the pump. If it is desired to fill the entire system with city water, all that is necessary is to open valve C, which permits the water to flow up to the attic tank and down through the balance of the system. When this is done, valve D on the overflow pipe should be closed after the water begins to overflow, and not before, as the system would become air-bound.

An overflow pipe is shown leading from the attic tank to the cistern within the house. If it is possible to run this overflow pipe out onto the roof so that the overflow will return to the cistern through the eavestrough and downspout pipe to the cistern, it is best to do so, as the cistern water then has a chance to become aerated. The pipe to supply the sill cock or yard hydrant for sprinkling purposes should be taken off at a point before the supply to pump, to prevent the unnecessary work of the pump when sprinking. In case of a basement closet being installed, a connection can be taken from the city water supply pipe run to the laundry tub, three-quarter-inch galvanized iron pipe is sufficiently large enough for all of the main supply pipes with one-half-inch branches to the different fixtures. These hydraulic rams are manufactured so as to work, and work successfully, at as low a pressure as ten pounds per square inch.