Famous Dutch Architects - The Royal Palace on the Dam, Het Loo, the Mauritshuis and Huis ten Bosch - Interior Carvings - Specimens of Rooms and Ceilings in the Rijks Museum - Love of the Dutch for their Houses - Miniature Dutch Houses and Models of Old Amsterdam Houses in the Rijks Museum - Architecture of the Seventeenth Century - A Typical Dutch Home - The Luifel, Voorhuis and Comptoir - Interior Decorations and Furniture - Dutch Mania for Cleaning - Descriptions by Travellers of Dutch Houses and Cleaning - Cleaning Utensils - House and Furniture of Andreas Hulstman Janz, in Dordrecht - Inventory of Gertrude van Mierevelt, wife of the painter, in Delft - "Show-rooms" and their Furnishings - Cooking Utensils - Bedroom in the House of Mrs. Lidia van der Dussen in Dordrecht - The Cradle and "Fire-Basket" - The Baby's Silver - The "Bride's Basket" - The "Bride's Crown" and "Throne" - Decorations for a Wedding - Description by Sir John Lower of the Farewell Entertainment to Charles II at The Hague.
THE most important architects of this period were Hendrik de Keyser (1565-1621), Jacob van Kampen (1598-1657), and Philip Vinckboons (1608-75). The Royal Palace on the Dam, Amsterdam, was built by Jacob van Kampen for a Town Hall; it was begun in 1648 and finished in 1655. It is interesting to note that the structure rests on a foundation of 13,659 piles. The gables are ornamented with allegorical reliefs by Artus Quellin the Elder (see page 137), representing the glories of Amsterdam. Artus Quellin and his assistants also adorned the interior with carvings and sculptures in marble. There are also in the various rooms elaborately carved chimney-pieces, some of them with painted overmantels by Jan Lievens, Ferd. Bol, and N. de Helt-Stocade (1656). The ceilings were painted by J. G. Bronchorst, Cornelis Holsteyn and others. This was not used as a palace until the time of Louis Napoleon in 1808.
Het Loo, near Apeldoorn, the favourite residence of William I, William III and the reigning Queen Wilhel-mina, received additions during this period; and the Royal Palace at The Hague was also built in the time of William III.
The Mauritshuis, on the Vyver (now the home of the famous Hague picture gallery), was erected in 1633-44, for Count John Maurice of Nassau, the Dutch West India Company's Governor of Brazil, who died in 1679. The architects were Jacob van Kampen and Pieter Post. This house was rebuilt in 1704-18, after a fire.
These two architects were also responsible for the Huis ten Bosch (House in the Wood), the royal villa near The Hague, built about 1645 for the Princess Amalia of Solms, widow of Prince Frederick Henry of Orange (1625-47). The wings were added by William IV in 1748, and many of the decorations are of the eighteenth century. The famous apartments are: the Chinese Room, the Japanese Room, and the Orange Saloon, in which the Peace Conference met in 1899.
The Treves Saloon in the Binnenhof in The Hague was built by William III in 1697 as a reception-room. It is embellished with a handsome ceiling and portraits of seven stadtholders. The two chimney-pieces in the hall of the first chamber represent War by Jan Lievens and Peace by Adr. Hanneman.
Plate XXXIV. - Chairs. RIJKS MUSEUM, AMSTERDAM.
An example of Philip Vinckboons's work is the Trip-penhuis in Amsterdam, built in 1662 in the classic style. This is now occupied by the Royal Academy of Science.
Exceptionally noteworthy specimens of interior carving of this period are: Renaissance chimney-piece and a Gothic chimney-piece in the Louis XIV style in the Antiquarian Museum, Utrecht; a chimney-piece dating from the end of the seventeenth century, with a group of the stamp-masters of the cloth-hall, by Karel de Moor, in the Municipal Museum, Leyden; carved panelling in the council chamber, Woerden (1610); carvings in the church at Venlo; panelling in the palace of the Princess Marie on the Korte Voorhout, The Hague; a pulpit of 1685 in Broek in the Waterland; and a monument in the church of St. Ursula, Delft, to William of Orange, begun in 1616 by Hendrik de Keyser, and finished by his son Peter.
The Rijks Museum possesses many examples of panelling, chimney-pieces, and separate pieces of furniture; and several entire rooms have been correctly arranged. Among these is a room with wall-panellings and chimney-piece from Dordrecht (1626). The ceiling, supposed to be by Th. van der Schuer (about 1678), represents Morning and Evening, and is from the bedroom of Queen Mary of England, wife of William III, in the Binnenhof, The Hague. The gilt leather hangings and other furniture in this room are of the same date.
Another room contains a beautifully painted cylindrical ceiling of wood from the apartment of Mary Stuart, wife of William II, Prince of Orange, also in the Binnen-hof. The panelling, chimney-piece, gilt leather hangings and furniture are also of the seventeenth century.
A notable room is that taken from the house of Constantia Huygens in The Hague, built by Jacob van Kampen. Blue silk is curiously used to embellish the panelling. The ceiling, painted by Gerard de Lairesse (1640-1711) represents Apollo and Aurora. This room is in the Louis XIV style. A later fashion is, however, shown in the splendid "Chinese Boudoir" of the latter part of the seventeenth century from the Stadtholder's palace at Leeuwarden.
Another room deserving attention is from a small hunting-lodge called the Hoogerhuis, near Amersfoort, built about 1630 by Jacob van Kampen and inhabited by him. The room is lighted by eight small windows, over which paintings were hung. There is an interesting bedstead here, ornamented with painted garlands, and with three compartments, beneath the central one of which is the Spanish motto, "'El todo es nada" (Everything is nought).
The Dutch of the seventeenth century passed practically all their lives at home. With the exception of merchants, students and men of affairs, people rarely visited their friends and relatives in neighbouring towns. As Pieter van Godewijck wrote: -