ARBOR VITAE. The different species of Thuja, are called Arbor vitae, and are chiefly found in North America and China. T. occidentalis, or American Arbor vitae, attains a height of from 40 to 50 feet, and has reddish-coloured, continued somewhat odorous, very light, soft and fine-grained wood. It is softer than white pine, and much used in house carpentry, and also for fences.
The Chinese Arbor vitae, or T. orientalis, la smaller, but the wood Is harder. T.orti culata, a native of the north tout of Africa, la the Alerce of the Moors, and was employed la the woodwork of the mosque, now the cathedral, of Cordova. The plant is now called Callitris quadrivalvis.
ASPEN. See Poplar.
BARBERRY WOOD, (BerberIS vulgaris,) is of small size, generally about 4 in. diam.; the rind is yellow, and about half an inch thick: the wood resembles elder, and is tolerably straight and tenacious.
BAR-WOOD, Africa. Two kinds are imported from Angola and Gaboon respectively, in split pieces 4 to 5 ft. long, 10 to 12 in. wide, and 2 to 3 in. thick. It is used as a red dye-wood, the wood is dark-red, but the dye rather pale; it is also used for violin bows, ramrods, and turning.
BAY-TREE. The sweet bay-tree, (Laurus nobilis,) a native of Italy and Greece, grows to the height of 30 feet, and is an aromatic wood. It is the laurel that was used by the ancients for their military crowns.
BEEF-WOOD. Red-coloured woods, are sometimes thus named, but it is generally applied to the Botany-Bay oak - which see.
BITTERNUT WOOD, a native of America, is a large timber wood measuring
30 inches when squared, plain and soft in the grain, something like walnut.
Juglams amara, white or swamp Hickory or Bitter-nut, and J. aguatica, or water bitter-nut hickory, are probably the trees which yield this wood.
BLUE-GUM WOOD. See Gum-wood.
BOTANY-BAY OAK. sometimes called Beef-wood, is from New South Wales; it is shipped in round logs, from 9 to 14 in. diam. In general colour it resembles a full red mahogany with darker red veins; the grain is more like the evergreen oak than the other European varieties, as the veins are small, slightly curled, and closely distributed throughout the whole surface.
It is used in veneer for the backs of brushes, Tunbridge ware, and turnery; some specimens are very pretty.
The trees called oaks in New South Wales do not belong to the genus Quercus, like the European, North American, and Himalayan oaks. There, the tree called Forest Oak, is Casuarina torulosa,- Swamp Oak, is C. paludosa; He Oak is C. equi-sitifolia; while C. stricta is called She Oak, and also Beef-wood.