GUM-WOOD, or blue Gum-wood, is the produce of New South Wales, it is sent over in large logs and planks, the colour is similar to that of dark Spanish mahogany, with a blue, sometimes a purple-grey cast: it is used in shipbuilding. There is also a variety of a redder tint called red Gum-wood, which is used for ramrods, both are also employed by the turner.

Eucalyptus piperita is the blue gum-tree of New South Wales, while red gum-tree is another species, probably E. resinifera.

Hackmetack Larch



HARE-WOOD. See Sycamore.


HAWTHORN, (Crataegus oxyacantha,) has hard wood of a whitish colour, with a tinge of yellow; the grain is fine, and the wood takes a good polish, but being small and difficult to work it is not much used.


HAZEL, a small underwood, but little used for turning, except for a few toys. It is very elastic, and is used, as well as the ground ash, for the rods of blacksmiths' chisels, hoops of casks, etc. Its botanical name is Corylus Avellana.


HICKORY, or White Walnut, (Juglans alba,) is a native of America; it is a large tree, sometimes exceeding 3 ft diameter. The wood of young trees is exceedingly tough and flexible, and makes excellent handspikes, and other works requiring elasticity. The bark of hickory is recommended by Dr. Bancroft as yellow dye.


HORNBEAM, (Carpinus Betulus,) sometimes also called yoke-elm, is a very tough and stringy European wood, which is used by millwrights for the cogs of wheels, also for skittles, plumbers' dressers or mallets, and a variety of things required to bear rough usage. Hornbeam is sometimes used for planes, it turns very well, and is occasionally imported from America.

Horse Chesnut

HORSE CHESNUT. (aesculus hippocastum,) has no ralation to the Spanish or sweet chesnut, which latter is more nearly allied to the oaks. The horse-chesnut is one of the white woods of the Tunbridge turner; it is close and soft, even in the grain, and is much used for brush backs, it turns very well in the lathe, and is a useful wood. It is softer than holly, but is prefcrable to it for large painted and varnished works, on account of its greatly superior size.

Horse-Flesh Wood

HORSE-FLESH WOOD, one of the Mangroves, which see.

Indian Black-Wood

INDIAN BLACK-WOOD. See East Indian Black-wood.


JAK-WOOD, is the wood of Artocarpus iniegrifolia, or the entire-leaf bread-fruit tree, a native of India, is imported in logs from 3 to 5 feet diameter, and also in planks; the grain is cross and crooked, and often contains sand. The wood is yellow when first cut, but changes to a dull red or mahogany colour. It is very much used in India for almost every purpose of house carpentry and furniture, and in England for cabinet-work, marquetry, and turning, and also for brush-backs. The jak-wood is very abundant, and its fruit is commonly eaten by the natives, and also sometimes by Europeans at dessert, with salt and water, like olives. The jak-wood is sometimes misnamed orange-wood from its colour, and also jack-wood, Jaack-wood and Kuthul. See Baker's Papers