The completed work is then very nearly severed from the piece on the chuck, so that the two may be easily broken apart, after the little piece left at the point has been cut through with the chisel; the left hand being placed around the work while this concluding cut is made, to catch it as it falls free from its supports. In turning this object in hardwood the widths would also be marked out upon the rough turned form as that progressed, the gouge and chisel would also suffice, but the flat and round tools for hardwood held in the horizontal manner, would generally replace them and be preferred as more convenient. The manipulation of these tools upon fig. 609, offers no variation from that detailed in Chapter VII (Materials From The Animal Kingdom. Section I. - Porcelanous And Nacreous Shells, Bones, Etc).

The preceding examples would probably require the application of glass paper, and possibly the further finish of their surfaces by polishing. It should be noted however, that upon all the better works in softwood, hardwood or ivory, the use of glass paper is avoided so far as possible, from the facility with which it obliterates the sharpness and correctness of the angles and forms turned. With tools in good condition as to their cutting angles, and with a little practise in their use, the work may generally be so smoothly turned as to reduce the necessity for glass paper to a minimum, sometimes even to render it unnecessary, and when requisite it is applied to the more carefully finished works with the following precautions. Upon cylinders and long curves approaching that character, such as fig. 608, a piece of fine glass paper about three or four inches square, is held around the revolving work in the hollow of the hand. The glass paper is never allowed to be strictly quiescent but while used constantly receives a small backward and forward movement in two directions, both laterally with respect to the axis and also around the work, to avoid marking the surfaces with rings; this being varied by occasionally stopping the motion of the lathe, that the glass paper may then be used upon the work in the direction of its length, to obliterate any circular marks that may have formed.

This alternation is more necessaiy upon surfaces which are very liable to be marked in rings that become apparent through the subsequent polish. Surface work has the glass paper first applied while in revolution and then at intervals in various directions across the diameter, the lathe being at rest and the left hand laid upon the mandrel pulley to retain the work at different positions. Upon the surface and upon some cylindrical forms, such as square bands, edges and fillets, the result is considerably better when the glass paper is used tightly wrapped around a true flat piece of wood for the former, and on a straight square slip for the latter; the accurate faces of the rubber tending to preserve those of the work. For quirks and angular grooves, unless these are of sufficient size to admit a corresponding rubber, the glass paper is once or twice folded and the stiff edge placed within them. It is also folded or rolled up for small concaves, but whenever possible it is used upon a straight piece of wood having a rounded edge, and sufficiently narrow to be twisted about within the hollow; for larger concaves and for most cavities, it is applied upon the fingers or the end of the thumb. For flat internal surfaces, edges and angles, the glass paper may be wrapped around a small flat piece or cube of wood, analogous to the rubber for the external forms. Glass papering is usually concluded with a finer cutting paper, or with pieces upon which the cutting action has nearly worn away. Roughly turned works in softwood submitted to the action of glass paper, have any loose fibres not immediately removed by it, laid down flat in the one direction ; the work may then be set in revolution in the reverse path, by which they are brushed up and carried away.

The various works left uniformly smooth from the tool or glass paper, are polished by different processes varying with their material and the degree of finish required, the following are the more general; the reader is also referred to the third volume, for notices upon polishing all the different substances used in the arts, and for the preparation of the materials and tools used for this purpose.

A large proportion of works turned in the softer woods, acquire a clean and sufficiently polished surface from simple friction, given to them while in revolution by a handful of their own shavings; this being sometimes followed by similar friction given with a clean cloth. The darker coloured softwoods are also polished by being lightly rubbed over with wax with the addition of a little resin, dissolved with heat in turpentine to the consistence of paste, applied on a piece of flannel; a slight coat is allowed to remain on them for some hours, the work is then returned to the lathe and as much as possible is removed and the polish completed by friction with dry clean flannel. The various softwoods previously treated with a coat of strong size and allowed to dry, are frequently varnished; one or two coats of sandarac or white hard varnish are usually employed, and the surface thus given is sometimes then rubbed down with fine glass paper and again varnished or polished, page 1399 Vol. III.

Hardwoods also receive a polish from the wax mixture, but being less absorbent, the wax requires more thorough removal, especially from all internal angles; the subsequent friction is continued until the work no longer receives marks from the fingers when taken in the hand. The effect upon either hard or softwood is permanent, the work always brightening when rubbed with a brush or cloth.

A superior polish for the closest grained hardwoods, results from abrading their finished surfaces with rottenstone, tripoli or dutch rush; the process being in fact simply that of continuing the finishing with glass paper by other, finer cutting materials. The polish or rather the exceedingly smooth surface produced is permanent and the method is employed for many of the best works, especially for those having frequent angles and small well turned mouldings, which it is not so advisable to lacker. The work left as smooth as possible from the tool, and carefully finished where necessary with fine glass paper, with the precautions already mentioned, first has its surfaces and all mouldings thoroughly cleansed from any particles of the glass and dust produced. A piece of flannel once or twice folded so as to form a square of about three inches, has one side moistened with oil and then covered with a thin layer of rottenstone or yellow tripoli, the latter being always used for the lighter coloured woods; this rubber is employed in the same manner as the glass paper, being used alternately while the work is in revolution, and then while it stands still, lengthwise upon the cylinder or across a surface. The soft rubber easily accommodates itself to the form of the work, but for penetrating very small mouldings the flannel may require to be used only once folded and to be carried in by the thumbnail, or the end of a small piece of stick; the powder gradually dries and at the same time becomes crushed and finer from the friction, the cutting action therefore gradually becomes more delicate, eventually leaving a very smooth surface, to preserve which advantage additional tripoli is not used except at the early stages of the polishing.