Cabinet-makers sometimes fix the file to a block of wood to serve for the grasp, and use it as a plane. Thus mounted, the file may also be very conveniently used on a shooting board, in filing the edges of plates to be inlaid.

. 820 represents a very good arrangement of this kind by Mr. W. Lund, a a is the plan and b the section of the file-stock, c c is the plan of the shooting board and d its section. Two files (that are represented black), are screwed against the sides of a straight bar of wood, which has also a wooden sole or bottom plate, that projects beyond, the files, so that the smooth edge of the sole may touch the shooting board instead of the file teeth. The shooting board is made in three pieces, so as to form a groove to receive the file dust, which would otherwise get under the stock of the file; the shooting board has also a wooden stop s, faced with steel, that is wedged and. screwed into a groove made across the top piece, and the stop being exactly at right angles, serves also to assist in squaring the edges of plates or the ends of long bars, with accuracy and expedition. Mr. Lund, prefers a flat file that is fully curved on the face, as nearly half the file then comes into action at every stroke.

Fig. 820.

Files Section I General And Descriptive View Of Pi 200218

Short pieces of files (or tools as nearly allied to saws), are occasionally fixed in the ends of wooden stocks, in all other respects like the routing gages of carpenters, as seen in two views in fig. 821; the coopers1 croze, page 488, is a tool of this description.

Files intended for finishing the grooves in the edges of slides, are sometimes made of short pieces of steel of the proper section,

Files Section I General And Descriptive View Of Pi 200219

(see fig. 822,) cut on the surfaces with file teeth, and attached in various ways to slender rods or wires, serving as the handles, and extending beyond the ends of the slides. Or the handle is at right angles to the file, and formed at the end, as a staple, to clip the ends of the short file, as in reaching the bottom of a cavity. Files intended to reach to the bottom of shallow cavities are also constructed as in figs. 823 and 824, or sometimes an inch or more of the end of an ordinary file is bent some 20 or 30 degrees, that the remainder may clear the margin of the recess.

To stiffen slender files, they are occasionally made with tin or brass backs, as in figs. 825 and 826; such are called dove-tail files, evidently from their similitude to dove-tail saws; and thin equailing files, are sometimes grasped in a brass frame, fig. 827, exactly like that used for a metal frame-saw, by which the risk of breaking the instrument in the act of tiling is almost annulled. An equivocal analogy, both to the file and saw, is to be observed in some of the delicate circular cutters, used in cutting watch wheels and other small works. The teeth of such cutters are in in an many instances formed by cuts of a chisel, the same as the teeth of files, and the axis of the cutter becomes, by comparison, the handle of the circular file.