For instance, the heel-tool, which is used for rough turning the metals, is represented of the full size in the side-view, fig. 415, and the front-view, fig. 416, and also on a smaller scale in figs. 417 and 418. The dotted lines a, fig. 417, denote the relative position of the fluted gouge, and although the heel or hook-tool occupies nearly the same spot, its edge is of double the thickness, and the entire resistance of the cut is sustained by the heel of the tool, which is poised upon the flat horizontal surface of the rest; the shaft of the tool is bent nearly at right angles, that it may be held either above or below the shoulder of the workman as preferred. Some variation is made in the form and size of the heel-tools, and they are occasionally pointed instead of round upon the cutting edge.

Heel Tools For Iron 20044

The heel-tool is slightly rotated upon its heel in its course along the work, so that, as seen at b, its edge travels in short arcs, and when its position becomes too inclined, a fresh footing is taken; on this account the straight handle, employed in ordinary tools, is exchanged for the transverse handle represented. In the best form of heel-tools the square shaft lies in a groove in the long handle, and is fixed by an eye-bolt and nut, passing through the transverse handle, as seen in the section 418. Notwithstanding the great difference between the materials upon which the gouge and heel-tool are employed, their management is equally easy, as in the latter the rest sustains the great pressure, leaving the guidance alone to the individual.

Fig. 419 represents another kind of hook-tool for iron, which is curiously like the tools, figs. 368 to 371, p. 514, used for soft wood, the common differences being here also observable, namely the increased strength of edge, and that the one edge is placed upon the rest to secure a firm footing or hold.

Nail-head tools are made much on the same principle, one of these, fig. 420, is like a cylinder, terminating in a chamfered overhanging disk, to be rolled along so as to follow the course of the work, but it is rather a theoretical than practical instrument. When, however, the tool is made of a square or rectangular bar, and with two edges as at fig. 421, it is excellent, and its flat termination greatly assists in imparting the rectilinear form to the work. Occasionally the bar is simply bent up at the end to present only one edge, as in fig. 422, it is then necessary the curved part should be jagged as a file to cause it to dig into the rest like the others of its class, and which present some analogy to the soft-wood tools, figs. 372 and 373, p. 515.

The cranked or hanging tools, fig. 423, are made to embrace the rest, by which they are prevented from sliding away, without the necessity for the points and edges of the heel-tools; the escape of the cranked tool sideways is prevented by the pin inserted in one of the several holes of the rest. The direct penetration is caused by the depression of the hand; the side-way motion by rotating the tool by its transverse handle, which is frequently a hand-vice temporarily screwed upon the shaft.

To save the trouble of continually shifting the lathe-rest, an iron wedge, (not represented,) is generally introduced at a, between the rest and the back of the tool; when the wedge is advanced at intervals it sets the tool deeper into the work, when it is withdrawn it allows more room for the removal of the tool.

Heel Tools For Iron 20045

The succeeding figure, 424, represents a tool of nearly similar kind, the stock is of iron, and it carries a piece of steel, about three or four inches long, and one inch square, which is forged hollow on the faces by means of the fuller, to leave less to be ground away on the stone. The rectilinear edges of this tool are used for smoothing iron rollers, iron ordnance, and other works turned by hand, and to preserve the edge of the tool, thin spills of hard wood are sometimes placed between the cutter and the bar. Under favourable arrangements these tools also are managed with great facility; indeed it occasionally happens that the weight of the handle just supplies the necessary pressure to advance the tool, so that they will rest in proper action without being touched by the hand; a tolerable proof of the trifling muscular effort occasionally required, when the tools arc judiciously moulded and well applied.

These hand tools and various others of the same kinds, although formerly much used by the millwrights, are now in a great measure replaced by the fixed tools applied in the sliding rest, some account of which will be given in the next section.