The side tools figs. 361. 363, are used after the hook tool, for turning more exact internal cylinders and surfaces, figs. 370. to 372.; they are held and used in much the same manner as the hook tool, just described, slightly tilted on the left under corner of the shaft. The long straight cutting edge of the side tool, would take too great a hold upon the work if permitted to cut by its entire length. The shaft of the tool therefore, is first held parallel with the cylinder, and then by an almost imperceptible inclination given in the pressure, the cut is made to fall principally on a portion of the edge, nearest the end or corner formed by the side and cutting edges. This very slight horizontal inclination gives the extreme end of the side edge the most penetration, causing the cut to gradually cease a short way up the edge; while, as the shaving is removed from the bottom outwards, the action of the side tool nearly approaches that of attacking and removing the fibres endways, the advantages of which have been previously explained. The side tool, fig. 374. Vol. II. is used in a similar manner for large works.

The thickness of shaving that the hook and side tools are intended to cut cannot easily be definitely stated, it varies both with the variety of the material, and with its condition as to dryness; the tools cut very freely in the softer woods, pear to pine, but much less so in beech and mahogany. The variable quantity is pointed out by the behaviour of the tool itself, and is also felt by the strain thrown upon the hands and arms when the tool is too much urged. The tool then rends off and does not cut the material, which results in the surface of the work acquiring a ragged, fibrous condition, and if this be allowed to continue, deep splintered cavities. A smooth surface can only be restored by a series of light cuts carefully taken, sometimes difficult, as the roughened surface once established, jars on the tool and has a tendency to increase rather than diminish. The best result is more rapidly attained, by so increasing the number of separate cuts, that the amount removed by each may be well within the full capacity of the tool and material.

Fig. 370. Fig. 371. Fig. 372.

Hollowing With The Gouge Hook And Side Tools Conti 400288

The internal cylinder the lengthways of the grain, roughed out with the gouge or hook tool, may also be finished smooth and true with the chisel, which tool also, is always used to finish that turned plankways. The chisel is presented lying flat and horizontally on the rest, which is placed across the mouth of the aperture, and the tool is thrust straight forward towards the bottom of the cylinder, cutting only by the extreme acute corner. The guide afforded by the straight edge of the side tool being absent, the truth of the line followed depends entirely upon the dexterity of the operator ; moderate recesses, present no difficulty, but in deep cylinders, some little practice is required to produce an equal diameter from end to end; the tool is always held with firmness, and but a small amount is removed by every cut.

The internal surface at the base of the cylinder, fig. 370, is turned flat with the end cutting edge of the side tool. The tool is presented to the surface held a little underhand, the stem being allowed but small vertical inclination; it may lie quite flat on the rest, but it is sometimes slightly tilted on its left under corner. In turning the surface, the side tool requires considerably less pressure than the hook tool; it may also be made to cut by depressing the handle, placing the stem more nearly horizontal, when the cutting edge becomes nearly in coincidence with the plane of the work.

The internal surface is commenced from the center, by separate cuts each the width of the tool, which is shifted between every cut to place them side by side, just merging one into the other; the last cut reaches the circumference and obliterates the round corner left by the gouge or the hook too]. The irregularities and the round corner of the surface having been reduced into tolerable agreement under the guidance of a steel square, the marks left upon it by the separate cuts are removed in the finishing; effected by light continuous shavings, principally taken from the center outwards, but sometimes in the opposite direction. As the end cutting edge of the side tool is traversed in either direction, the following corner, is made to penetrate the surface slightly more than the rest of the edge that precedes it; the other or leading corner, being held just free of the work, analogous to the action of the side cutting edge of the tool upon the cylinder. In these finishing cuts and in those on the internal cylinder, the tool is held lightly, so that the hands may feel whether it always retains the same amount of cut or hold upon the work from the commencement to the end of each traverse; but at the same time, the tool is held with sufficient firmness to maintain the cutting edge in the same angular position throughout. The sharp corner formed by the end and side cutting edges of the side tool being less than a right angle, when the end is cutting on the surface, the corner may be carried quite to the circumference, without the cutting side touching the internal cylinder. In like manner, the side edge may cut to the extreme end of the internal cylinder, without the cutting end of the tool taking any effect upon the surface. Both surface and cylinder may thus be separately worked upon without damage to either, and their corner finished accurately square to the right angle, joining the true internal surface and cylinder.

The internal surface fig. 370, is perhaps one of the most difficult from the depth and proportions of its accompanying cylinder, which cause the edge of the tool to be at some distance from the point of support; with decreasing depth, the application of the end of the side tool is proportionately easier. Internal surfaces at slight depths are conveniently turned with the broad fig. 372. Vol. II., held underhand, the stem at a vertical angle of from 40° to 50°. The cutting edge of this tool is ground to slope equally both ways, like a gable, it can therefore be traversed either to or from the center of the work, with the back lying flat on the rest and does not require tilting. The stem of the tool is also presented at a small yet sufficient horizontal angle, to cause the leading corner of that side of the cutting edge that is at work, to travel just free of the surface. This tool is also made with straight and round cutting edges, the former for corners, and the latter for rough facing the surface, used instead of the gouge.

The internal cone when turned in softwood, is nearly always truncated; it is first hollowed out with the gouge or hook tool under the guidance of the bevil, the sides are then turned smooth with the side tool, and the surface, with that or the broad, as may be more convenient. The application of the tools is virtually the same as to the internal cylinder and surface.