The following tables are a part of those upon the strength of materials, collected by Tredgold; they arc transcribed literatim from Vol. 50 of the Philosophical Magazine, p. 421 - 3. (1817.)

They will be found of considerable service in all inquiries which regard the employment of the metals and alloys in sustaining loads. The first column of figures denotes the comparative strength of the metals, glass being considered as unity; thus steel of razor temper is nearly 16 times as strong as glass of equal size; and by the second column, it is seen that a bar of steel one inch square is pulled asunder by a load of 150,000 lb.

It has been considered unnecessary for this place to extend the tables by any of the subsequent labours of Telford, Rennie, Barlow, Brown, Bramah, and others; but the reader interested in the earlier inquiries into the strength of materials, will find them enumerated in the introduction to Rennie's experiments, Trans. Roy. Society, 1818, and Phil. Mag. Vol. 53, page 161.

Tables Of The Cohesive Force of Solid Bodies. Table I. - Metals

(b)and (l) mark the highest and lowest result which Muschenbroek obtained from each kind of iron.

METALS.

speclific

Cigeskib

Glass L.

Cob. Force of a square inch in lbs. avoir

Speeice Gravity.

Hardeness.

AUTHORITY.

STEEL.

Razor temper . .

15.927

150,000

7.78 to

§

Muschenbrock, Encyclo. Brit.

Soft . . .

12.739

120,000

7.84

11

Idem. art. Strength.

Ikon.

Wire . . .

12.004

113,077

Sickingen, Ann. de Chimie, xxv. 9.

German bar, mark BR (h) . .

9.880

93,069

Mutchenb. Int.ad Phil Nat. i. 426.

Swedish bar (h) . .

9.445

88,972

Idem.

German bar, mark L (h) . .

9.119

85,000

Idem.

Wire . .

9108

85,797

Buffon,CEuvres de Gauthey, ii 153.

Bar . .

8.964

84,443

Emerson, Mechanics, 115.

Liege bar (h) . .

8.794

82,839

Muscheub.Int.ad Phil. Nat.i. 426.

Spanish, bar . .

8.685

81,901

Idem.

Bar ... . . .

8.581

80,833

from 7.0 to 7 .8†

irom 8 to 9t

Soufllot Rondclet's L.'Art de Batir, iv. 500.

Bar . . .

8.492

80,000

Edin. Encyclo. art. Bridge, 544.

Ooerment bar (h ) .

8142

76,697

Muschenb. Intr. ad Phil. Nat. i.426.

Cable . . .

7.752

73,024

Annals of Phil. vii. 320.

German bar, mark L (l)

7.382

69,538

Muschcnb.Intr. ad Phil. Nat. i.426.

German bar, common .

7 339

69,133

Idem.

Swediah bar .

(l) .

7.296

68,728

Idem.

Ooeemcnt bar

Bar of beat quality . .

7006

66,000

Rumford, Phil. Map. x. 51.

Liege bar (/) . .

6.621

02,369

Mushenb. Iutr.ad Phil. Nat.i. 426.

German bar, mark BR(l) .

6.514

61,361

Idem.

Bar . .

6.480

61,041

IVrronet,CEuv. deGautbey,ii. 154.

Bar of good quality . .

5.839

55,000

Rumford, Phil. Mag. x. 51.

Cable . ... . .

5.787

54,513

Annals of Phil. x. 311.

Bar, fine-grained . .

5.306

49,982

Rondelct, L'Art de Batir, iv. 502.

-medium finenets .

3.618

34,081

Idem.

-coarse-grained . .

2172

20,460

Idem.

Cast Iron.

French . . . ‡

7.470

70,367

Navicr, CEuc. de Gauthry, ii. 150.

German . .

7.250

68,295

7.807

Muschenb. Iutr.ad Phil. Nat. i. 417.

French, soft . . ‡

6.754

63,622

Rondclct, L'Art de Batir, iv. 514.

Englith . ‡

5.520

52,000

Banks, Gregory's Mcchan., i. 129. Ex. i.

French . .

5.412

50.981

L.EcoledcsPonts,etc.Gaut. ii.150.

- ‡

4.540

42,666

Gauthey, CEuvres, ii. 150.

English, soft . . ‡

4.334

40,824

§

Banks, Greg. Mech. i. 128. Ex. iii.

† Kirwan. Ban. Miner. ii. 155.

* This to the mean result of thirty-three experiments.

‡ Calculated from experiments on the transveras strength, by arts. 14 and 15.

§Yielded to the file without difficulty.

METALS.

Specific

Oonesion.

Glass I

Coh. Force of a square inch in lbs. avoir.

Specific Gravity.

Hardness.

AUTHORITY.

Cast Iron.

French gray . ‡

4.000

37,680

Rondelet, L'Art de Batir, iv. 514.

Gray, of Cruzot,2d fusion ‡

3.257

30,680

Ramus, Gauthey, ii. 150.

Gray, of Cruzot, 1st fusion ‡

3.202

30,162

Ramus, Gauthey, ib.§

Copper.

Wire . . .

6 606

61,228

Sickingen, Ann. de Chimie, xxv. 9.

Cast, Barbary

2.396

22,570

8.182

8†

Muschcnb.Intr.ad Phil.Nat.i.417.

- Japan

2.152

20,272

8.726

Idem.

Platinum.

Wire . . .

5.995

56,473

20.847

8||

Morveau, Ann. de Chimie, xxv. 8.

Wire . ...

5.625

52,987

Sickingen. Ann. de Chim. xxv. 9.

SILVER.

Wire . . .

4.090

38,257

7||

Sickingen, Ann. de Chim. xxv. 9.

Cast . . . .

4.342

40,902

11.091

Muschenb.Intr.adPhil.Nat.i.417.

Gold.

Wire . . .

3.279

30,888

6†

Sickingen, Ann. de Chim. xxv. 9.

Cast . . . .

2.171

20,450

19.238

Muschenb. Intr.ad Phil Nat. i. 417.

Tin.

Wire . . .

0.7568

7,129

6†

Morveau, Ann. de Chim. lxxi. 1.94.

Cast, English block .

0.706

6,650

Muschenb. Intr.adPhil.Nat.i.417.

- idem . . .

0.565

5,322

7.295

Idem.

- Banca . .

0.3906

3,679

7.2165

Idem.

- Malacca . .

0.342

3,211

6.1256

Idem.

Bismuth.

Cast .... . .

0.345

3,250

9.8101

7||

Muschenb. Intr.ad Phil. Nat.i.417.

- . .

0.3193

3,008

9.926

Idem, i. 454.

Zinc.

Wire . .

2.394

22,551

6†

Morveau, Ann de Chim. lxxi. 194.

Patent sheet . . .

1.752

16,616

By my trial.

Cast, Goslar, from .

0.3119

2,937

7.215

to . .

0.2855

2,689

Muschenb.Intr.ad Phil. Nat. i.417.

Lead.

Milled . .

0.3533

3,328

11.407

5||

By my trial.

Wire .... .

0.334

3,146

11.348

Muschenb.Intr.adPhil. Nat. i. 452.

Wire ....

0.274

2,581

11.282

Idem.

Wire ....

02704

2,547

Morveau, Ann. de Chim. lxxi. 194.

Cast, English . .

0.094

885

11.479

Muschenb.Intr. ad Phil.Nat.i.452.

Antimony, cast . .

0.1126

1,060

4.500

6†

Muschenb.Intr. ad Phil.Nat. i.417.

§ In the operation of casting, the surface of the iron always becomes much harder, and is more tenacious than the internal parts: hence the strength of a small specimen is always greater than that of a large one. Those of M. Ramus, however, are unexceptionable in this respect, as the area of the section at the place of fracture was above nine square inches.

N. B. When the specific gravity is not referred to a separate authority, it is to be considered that of the specimen of which the cohesive force is given.

† Kirwan's Miner, vol. ii.

||Thomson's Chemistry, vol. i.

Tables Of The Cohesive Force Of Solid Bodies. Table II. - Alloys

ALLOY OF

Specific

Coheslon.

Glass I.

Cohesion of square inch. in lbs. avoir.

Specific Gravity.

AUTHOR1TY.

Parts.

Parts.

Gold .

2

Silver ..

1

2.972

28,000

Musch. Encyclop. Brit. art.

Gold. .

6

Copper .

1

5.307

50,000

Idem.

[Strength.

Silver

5

Copper .

1

5.148

48,500

Idem.

Silver . .

4

Tin. . .

1

4.352

41,000

Idem.

Brass . .

. . .

1

4.870

45,882

Muschenb., Colson, i 242.

Copper . .

10

Tin . .

1

3.407

32,093

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Copper .

8

Tin . . .

1

3.332

36,088

Idem.

[i 428.

Copper . .

6

Tin .

1

4.687

44,071

Idem.

Copper .

4

Tin . . .

1

3.794

35,739

Idem.

Copper . .

2

Tin .

1

0.108

1,017

Idem.

Copper . .

1

Tin . . .

1

0.077

725

Idem.

Tin, English,

10

Lead . .

1

0.733

6,904

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Tin, -

8

Lead . .

1

0.841

7,922

Idem.

[i. 438.

Tin -

6

Lad . .

1

0.849

7,997

Idem.

Tin, -

4

Lead . .

1

1.126

10,007

Idem.

Tin, -

2

Lead . .

1

0.793

7,470

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Lead . .

1

0.751

7,074

Idem.

Tin, Banca,

10

Antimony.

1

1187

11,181

7.359

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Tin, -

8

Antimony .

1

1.049

9,881

7.276

Idem.

[i. 442.

Tin, -

6

Antimony .

1

1.341

12,632

7.228

Idem.

Tin, -

4

Antimony .

1

1.431

13,480

7,192

Idem.

Tin -

2

Antimony.

1

1.277

12,029

7,105

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Antimony .

1

0.338

3,184

7.060

Idem.

Tin, -

10

Bismuth .

1

1.347

12,688

7.576

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Tin, -

4

Bismuth .

1

1.772

16,692

7.613

Idem.

[i.443.

Tin, -

2

Bismuth .

1

1.488

14,017

8,076

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Bismuth .

1

1.276

12,020

8.146

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Bismuth .

2

1063

10,013

8.58

Idem.

Tin -

1

Bismuth .

4

0.836

7,875

9,009

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Bismuth .

10

0.411

3,871

9.439

Idem.

Tin -

10

Zinc, Indian,

1

1.371

12,914

7.288

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Tin -

2

Zinc . .

1

1.595

15,025

7.000

Idem.

[i. 444.

Tin, -

1

Zinc . .

1

1.682

15,844

7.321

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Zinc . .

2

1.701

16,023

7.100

Idem.

Tin -

1

Zinc . .

10

0.602

5,671

7130

Idem.

Tin, English,

1

Zinc, Goslar,

1

0.958

9,024

Musrh. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Tin, -

2

Zinc . .

1

1164

10,964

Idem.

[i. 446.

Tin, -

4

Zinc. .

1

1089

10,258

Idem.

Tin -

8

Zinc . .

1

1.126

10,607

Idem.

Tin, -

1

Antimony .

1

0.154

1,450

7000

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Tin, -

3

Antimony .

2

0.338

3,184

Idem.

[1.448.

Tin -

4

Antimony .

1

1.202

11,323

Idem.

Lead, scotch,

1

Bismuth .

1

0.777

7,319

10.931

Musch. Intr. ad Phil. Nat.

Lead, -

2

Bismuth .

1

0.620

5,840

11.90

Idem.

[i. 454.

Lead, -

10

Bismuth .

1

0.300

2,326

10.827

Idem.

VOI .I

Tabular View of Some Of The Properties Of Metals

{Extracted principally from Brande's Manual of Chemistry, 1841.)

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

CHEMICAL EQUIVA.

LENTS *.

Platinum . .

20.98

98.8

Gold . . .

19.258

199.2

Iridium . .

18.680

98.3

Tungsten . .

17.50

99.7

Mercury . .

13.568

202.

Palladium . .

11.50

53.3

Lead . .

11.35

103.6

Rhodium . .

11.0

52.2

Silver . . .

10.47

108.

Bismuth . .

9.80

71.

Uranium. . .

9.00

217.

Copper . .

8.89

31.6

Cadmium . .

8.60

55.8

Cobalt . .

8.53

29.5

Nickel . . .

8.27

29.5

Iron . . .

7.78

28.

Molybdenum . .

740

47.7

Tin . .

7.30

57.9

Zinc . . .

7.00

32.3

Manganese . .

6.85

27.7

Antimony . .

6.70

64.6

Tellurium . .

6.10

64.2

Arsenic . . .

5.8

37.7

Titanium . .

5.3

24.3

Sodium . . .

0.972

23.3

Potassium . .

0.865

39.15

Alloys possessed of greater Specific Gravity than the mean of their components.

Gold and Zinc.

- Tin.

- Bismuth.

- Antimony.

- Cobalt. Silver and Zinc.

- Lead.

- Tin.

- Bismuth.

- Antimony. Copper and Zinc.

- Tin.

- Palladium.

- Bismuth.

- Antimony. Lead and Bismuth.

- Antimony. Platinum and Molybdenum. Palladium and Bismuth.

Fusibility.*

Fahrenheit.

Fusible below a red heat

Mercury . . .

39

deg.

Potassium . . .

135

"

Sodium . . .

190

"

Tin . . .

442

"

Bismuth . . .

497

"

Lead . . . .

612

"

Tellurium, rather less fusible than

Arsenic, undetermined.

[lead.

Zinc . . .

773

deg.

Antimony, a little below a red heat.

Cadmium, about . .

442

deg.

Infusible below a red heat.

'Silver . . .

1873

deg.

Copper . . . .

1996

"

Gold . . .

2016

"

Cobalt, rather less fusible than iron.

Iron, cast . .

2786

deg.

Iron, malleable

requiring the highest heat of a smith's forge.

Manganese .

Nickel, nearly the same as Cobalt.

Palladium .

Almost infusible and not to be procured in buttons by the heat of a smith's forge, but fusible before the oxyhy-drogen blowpipe.*

Molybdenum

Uranium .

Tungsten .

Chromium .

Titanium .

Cerium .

Osmium .

Iridium .

Rhodium .

Platinum .

Columbium .

Alloys having a Specific Gravity inferior to the mean of their components.

Gold and Silver.

- Iron.

- Lead.

- Copper.

- Iridium.

- Nickel. Silver and Copper. Copper and Lead. Iron and Bismuth.

- Antimony.

- Lead. Tin and Lead.

- Palladium.

- Antimony. Nickel and Arsenic. Zinc and Antimony.

* Extracted from Dr. Turner's Chemistry, Seventh Edition, 1841.

HERDNESS.

Titanium . .

Harder than Steel.

Manganese ..

Platinum . .

Scratched by Calc. spar.

Palladium .

Copper .

Gold . .

Silver. .

Tellurium . .

Bismuth . .

Cadmium

Tin . .

Chromium .

Scratch glass.

Rhodium

Nickel .

Scratched by glass.

Cobalt . .

Iron . .

Antimony .

Zinc . .

Lead . .

Scratched by the nail.

Potassium .

Soft as wax (at 60 deg.)

Sodium .

Mercury .

Liquid.

Brittleness.

The following Metals are brittle, and most of them may even be reduced to powder.

Antimony. Arsenic. Bismuth. Cerium.

Chromium. Cobalt Columbium.

Manganese.

Molybdenum.

Rhodium.

Tellurium.

Titanium.

Tungsten.

Uranium.

Malleability,

Or admit of being extended by the hammer.

Silvr.

Copper,

Tin.

Cadmium.

Platinum.

Lead.

Zinc.

Iron.

Nickel.

Palladium.

Potassium.

Sodium.

Frozen Mercury.

DUCTILITY,

Or admit of being drawn into wires.

Gold.

Silver.

Platinum.

Iron.

Copper

Tin. Lead

Nickel.

Palladium. Cadmium.

Tenacity. Weights sustained by wires 0.787 of a line diam.

Iron . .

549

lbs.

250

dec.pts.

Coppper . .

302

"

278

"

Platinum . .

274

"

320

"

Silver .

187

"

137

"

Geld . .

150

"

753

"

Zinc . .

109

"

540

"

Tin . . .

34

"

630

"

Lead . .

27

"

621

"

Elasticity and sonorousness belong to the hardest metals only, and are most evident in certain alloys.

Odour and taste are most remarkable in copper, iron, and tin.

Linear Dilatations By Heat

Dimensions which a bar takes at 212°, whose length at 32° is 1.000000; also its dilatation in vulgar fractions.

Platinum . .

1.00091085 or one

1007th part

Palladium . .

1.00100000

"

1000th

"

Antimony . .

1.00108300

"

083d

"

Cast Iron . .

1.00111025

"

901st

"

Steel . .

1.00121286

"

824 th

"

Wrough Iron . .

100124800

"

801st

"

Bismuth . .

1.00139200

"

718th

"

Gold . .

1.00149824

"

567th

"

Cooper . .

1.00179633

"

557th

"

Gun Metal, (C. S, T. I)) .

1.00181700

"

550th

"

Brass . . .

1.00190663

"

524 th

"

Speculum Metal .

1.00193300

"

517th

"

Silver . .

1.00200163

499th

"

Tin . .

1.00233840

"

424 th

"

Lead . .

1.00285768

"

350th

"

Zinc . .

1.00297650

"

336th

"

The are the mean proportions of the varuous ex amples, of each metal, given in Ure's Dictionary of Chemis

Power Of Conducting Heat

From Despretz's Experiments*.

Conducting power

Gold . .

10.0

Platinum .

98.1

Silver .

97.8

Copper .

89.82

Iron . .

37.41

Zinc .

36.37

Tin . .

30.38

Lead . .

17.96

Marble .

2.34

Porcelain . .

1.22

Brick earth .

113+

• Ana. do Chim. et de Pays xlx. 97.

† Traite Elementaire de Physique, par M. Daspretz. p. 20). - as quoted by Dr. Thornton, On Heat and Electricity. p. 103.