The cutting bevils of the gouge and chisel, at the moment of cutting in producing the surface, exactly coincide with the planes they form, analagous to the manner in which they become tangents to the circle upon the cylinder; their cutting action is obtained, by presenting the bevil to the surface at an angle slightly greater than that of coincidence. Independently of this angular position, the bevil of the tool travels radially from the circumference to the center, exactly at right angles to the axis of the work. The blade of the gouge is held as before, but the right hand is placed higher up the body with the knuckles against the side, the arm bent at the elbow; the gouge rests on its side fig. 347, with the cutting bevil nearly corresponding with the proposed surface. The tee of the hand rest is in the same position as for turning the cylinder.

Fig. 345. Fig. 346. Fig. 347.

Section III Position Of The Gouge And Chisel On Th 400280

The rough end of the cylinder not being at right angles to its axis, forms acute and obtuse angles with its sides; the first surface cut with the gouge therefore, has to be made at a sufficient distance from the end to be just within the obtuse angle, at once to form a continuous arris, to avoid intermittent action against the tool. It should also be remarked that the first cut with the gouge upon the surface, here referred to, is generally made to a small depth, at the time of rough turning the cylinder, in order that the extreme end of the latter may be true and not interfere with the traverse of the tools upon it. The gouge held firmly with both hands and nearly horizontally, fig. 345, is thrust straight forward, and travels from the circumference to the center by the weight of the body pressed upon it; the handle being at the same time continuously raised against the side by the right hand, which gradually directs the point of the tool to the center, where, at the termination of the cut, it assumes the position shown by the dotted figure. The body also slightly sways to the right, as the cutting bevil following the surface to the center, causes the shaft of the tool to travel a short distance in that direction on the rest.

The accurate direction of the edge of the gouge may be much assisted upon surfaces of small diameter, and also as it approaches the center of those of large, if the tool be held in a slightly different manner. The gouge is still firmly grasped within the left hand as before, but the side of the hand is firmly pressed against the front of the tee, and the gouge is made to slide through the closed hand, as if through a tube. The left hand clasps the blade with either the knuckles or the finger nails uppermost, the latter position being sometimes convenient. Held in either manner, the gouge thus traversing the surface the end way of the grain, always lies on its side, when it cuts only by the center of its elliptically formed cutting edge. Should the tool become misplaced in the course of its progress, so that it lies on the rest less on its side and more nearly on its convex back, it becomes very difficult to hold; the side of the cutting edge being then almost certain to catch in the surface, to their mutual damage. It is not essential that the tool should travel from the circumference to the center at one stroke; its progress may be arrested and recommenced as often as may be convenient; indeed unless the surface be small, it is rarely possible to direct the gouge in an actually true straight line. At first the surface produced will be irregular, and with practice it is usually somewhat concave or convex; the tool has then to be reapplied, under the guidance of the straight edge or square, to reduce the portions they show to be in excess. The gouge cuts square across the fibres of the wood and can easily be made to produce a surface that is sufficiently good for many small works, or for the hidden faces of larger, so as sometimes not to require the subsequent application of the chisel.

In turning the surface, the blade of the chisel is held as described for the cylinder, but, it is supported upright upon one edge, the shaft standing on the rest at a small lateral angle, fig. 349, placing the cutting bevil vertical and at right angles to the axis of the work. The chisel is presented to the circumference of the surface, held quite close to the end of the cylinder, sloping slightly upwards, as in fig. 348, or horizontal, or even downwards, as the acute or obtuse angle may be uppermost; the cut being commenced by a portion of the cutting edge, about one third distant from the lower angle. The tool is pushed forward and simultaneously brought nearly horizontal, the cut being terminated at the centre by the actual point of the lower angle. The acute or the obtuse angle of the chisel may be used uppermost, almost indifferently, as may happen to agree with the material, convenience, or individual habit. Surfaces upon the harder softwoods, such as beech and mahogany, especially when the wood is dry and well seasoned, are more readily turned with the acute angle below, but freshly cut and the softer woods, when it is above, as in the figure. The shaving takes the form of a thin disc, complete and bent up, or dished like a saucer, from the advance of the tool forcing it to creep up the outer bevil of the cutting edge. If however, it be attempted to remove a shaving of too great a thickness, the disc is unable to bend out of the way, and it then completely arrests the advance of the tool.

Fig. 348. Fig. 349. Fig. 350.

Section III Position Of The Gouge And Chisel On Th 400281

Should the blade of the chisel be inclined towards the work by its upper edge, instead of being held precisely upright, the bevil wanders from coincidence with, and encroaches upon the plane of the surface it is cutting. The cutting edge, is then almost certain to catch against the arris formed by the surface and cylinder, which entanglement causes the tool to be irresistibly carried along towards the center, its upper angle, scoring the surface with a deep irregular screw line. The chisel is most liable to this accident at the commencement of the surface cut, when, it may be avoided, by holding the shaft of the tool firmly, exactly upright and at a small horizontal angle; making the first incision as if for an obtuse cone, the blade held in the direction of the chisel when turning the back surface, fig. 349, but much less as to angle. Immediately after which, continuing the cut and without removing the tool, the blade, still held exactly upright, is brought into and directed to the center, with the bevil in the proper line for the surface. During its subsequent advance, the contact between the flat bevil of the tool, and the flat surface formed upon the work, constantly increases, and greatly aids in maintaining the chisel correctly upright.

As with the gouge, it is difficult to so exactly direct the chisel, as to produce a surface requiring no subsequent correction. The places in excess are detected first by the eye, and then as the surface becomes more nearly correct, with the straight edge; they are reduced by shavings varying in thickness, commencing with and dying away to nothing, taking effect upon the high parts only. The variation of the thickness of the shaving, is readily produced by moving the handle, to vary the horizontal position of the tool, which places the cutting bevil more or less out of coincidence with the surface ; but the movement required is so slight, that although sensible to the touch it is hardly so to sight. The surface when true from correction, greatly assists the traverse of the chisel for the finishing cuts, which should consist of thin shavings, extending when possible, uninterruptedly from the circumference to the center of the work.