Narrow chisels that are too small to be grasped in both hands, are held in the right hand much the same as a plane iron, and the pressure is principally given by the first two fingers of the left applied near the edge of the tool, and over the forefinger of the right hand.
Chisels that are required for paring across the end grain of moderately soft wood, are considered to hang better to the work when they have a very slight keen burr or wire edge, thrown up on the face of the tool; to produce this they are sharpened quite smoothly as usual, but for the last finish the bevil is passed once or twice over the stone as in sharpening, and which raises a minute wire edge sufficient for the purpose.
Cabinet-makers' gouges that are sharpened externally, and are required to have the edge square across the end of the tool, are held in the right hand the same as small chisels, and traversed straight along the oilstone with the shaft at right angles to the side of the stone; the first two fingers of the left hand are applied within the concavity of the gouge, and serve as a fulcrum upon which the tool is twisted about one-fourth of a turn, with each stroke backwards and forwards upon the oilstone, so as to subject all parts of the chamfer equally to the action of the stone; this is continued until the edge has been uniformly sharpened. The flat oilstone cannot be applied to remove the wire edge from the concave side of the tool, but which is effected with a slip of oilstone having a convex edge, as described on page 1081, the gouge is held in the left hand whilst the oilstone slip is rubbed up and down the inside of the gouge with the right hand, care being taken to keep the slip flat on the face of the tool to avoid making a second chamfer; at the last finish the side of the slip is generally swept once or twice around the outside of the edge.
Gouges that are sharpened from the inside must be set entirely with the oilstone slip, but the gouge is in this case generally rested against the bench, and the process is more tedious.
It is at all times rather difficult to keep the curved edge of the gouge level across the end. When the edge has become irregular from repeated sharpening, it is restored by placing the gouge perpendicular upon the oilstone, and reducing the end to a level surface; after which the edge is sharpened as above described.
Moulding plane irons are held in the left hand face upwards, that the operator may the more exactly see the part to which the oilstone slip is applied; the straight portions of the edge are sharpened upon the ordinary oilstone, and to remove the wire edge the iron is laid flat on the oilstone in the same manner as a chisel.
The turning chisel for soft wood, is sharpened in the same manner as the paring chisel, the only differences arising from the double chamfer and the oblique edge; the extreme point of the turning chisel requires to be made quite keen, that it may be used for turning flat surfaces.
The turning gouge, when sharpened upon the flat oilstone, is held in the same manner as the cabinet-maker's gouge, but to sharpen its elliptical edge, the tool is traversed in a concave sweep upon the face of the oilstone, whilst the gouge is twisted in the hand exactly as described for grinding this tool. Sometimes both the outside and inside of the turning gouge are set with the oilstone slip; in this case the gouge is held in the left hand, and rested against the popit head, or any convenient part of the lathe, whilst the flat surface of the oilstone slip is rubbed lengthways upon the chamfer of the tool around each part, and then the round edge of the slip is rubbed within the concave flute.
The wire edge left by the grindstone upon the gouge must be entirely removed before the tool is fit for use, it is expedited by drawing the chamfer of the tool through a notch cut by itself in a piece of wood as hard as beech, a few touches of the oilstone slip will then render the edge perfectly keen and fit for use.
Tools for turning hardwood, ivory, and those for finishing the metals, are sharpened upon the oilstone much the same as the corresponding tools for soft wood, the principal difference being that they are held upon the stone at a greater angle, according to the material upon which they are to be employed; the appropriate angles and forms for the various materials have been fully (explained in the second volume of this work. Tools for steel cut the most keenly and smoothly when left from a fine grindstone. Tools for iron cut rather more smoothly when finished on the oilstone, but the edge is not so enduring, and therefore with tools for iron the oilstone is only occasionally resorted to for giving a smooth edge for the last finish of the work. Tools for brass and gun-metal, when left from the grindstone, cut too rankly, and are said by workmen to drag; they are therefore always sharpened upon the oilstone, and the finishing tools for brass and gun-metal are frequently burnished, as mentioned at page 522 of the second volume; in this case the burnisher is placed at right angles to the face of the tool, and passed once, or at most twice, across the edge with moderate pressure.
Finishing tools for soft wood are sometimes burnished with the back of the turning gouge, applied at an angle to throw up a wire edge which is used with a scraping action. The broads figs. 372 and 373, page 515, Vol. II., are thus employed for flat surfaces. Right side tools, fig. 382, ground at an angle of about 30 degrees, and burnished, serve for the interior of boxes, and ordinary paring chisels are used in like manner for finishing cylindrical and convex works. The method of sharpening the joiner's scraper with the burnisher is explained at page 484, Vol. II.