52.   Besides the twelve simple-vowels, which are written with dots and dashes, there are in our language four Diphthongs, or glide-vowels, which are written with small angle-points, placed at the sides of the consonant-stems.

53.   The diphthongs are the sounds of 1.   I in bite or y in by.

2.   0I in oil or oy in boy.

3.   OW in owl or ough in bough.

4.   EW in few or u in tube.

54.   Places of the Diphthongs. - Three of the diphthong-signs are written in the first-place, and one in the third-place; as shown in the following TABLE OF DIPHTHONG-SIGNS.


55. Signs Always Point the Same Way. - The angle-points of the diphthong-signs are always turned in the directions shown in the above table, no matter what may be the inclination of the stems to which they are written.

Examples :


56.   Names of the Diphthongs. - The diphthongs are named by simply giving their sounds. Thus, the name of I is the sound of the pronoun " I" ; of 01, the sound of the word oil with the / omitted ; of ow, the sound of the word out with the t omitted ; and of E\v, the sound of the word due with the d omitted. In naming the diphthongs 01, OW, and ew, be careful not to say " o-i," " o-double-you," " e-double-you."

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

58.   Pa, bay, beau or bow (of a ribbon), two or too, they, thee, saw, so or sew (with a needle), coo, Joe, me, fee, nay or neigh, no or know, she, shoe, low, thaw, raw, ape, ought or aught, ale or ail, or, ear, ache, ooze, each, dough or doe, ode or owed, key or quay, eke, roe or row (with an oar), oar. Die, by or buy, thy, toy, rye, vie, cow, jew, shy, pew, coy, thou, my, few, sue, mow (pile of hay), lie, hew or hue or Hugh, out, eyed, ice.