Barthez, or Barthes. I. Paul Joseph, a French physician, born at Montpellier, Dec. 11, 1734, died Oct. 15, 1806. He early acquired renown as an army physician, and about 1760 became a professor in the medical school of Montpellier, and in 1773 coadjutor and prospective successor of the chancellor of the faculty. He was also received doctor of law in 1780, and appointed councillor in the court of aids. His haughty character led him into disagreements with his colleagues, wherefore he removed to Paris in 1781, and became consulting physician to the king, member of the council of state, and of many learned societies. He lost his places at the revolution, but was afterward honorary professor at Montpellier, and received many tokens of regard from Napoleon. He explained the animal economy by the theory of a vital principle, and has been called the Hegel of medical science. His method is stated in his Nouxeaux elements de la science de l'homme (Montpellier, 1778; enlarged ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1806), which has been translated into most European languages.

His Nouxclle mecanique des mouvements de l'homme et des animaux (Carcassonne, 1798), and his Traitement des maladies goutteuses (2 vols., Paris, 1802; new ed., 1819), have been translated into German. Among his other numerous writings are two posthumous works, Traite du beau (edited by his brother, 1807), and Consultations de mede-cine (2 vols., 1810). II. Antoine Charles Ernest de, a French physician, grand-nephew of the preceding, born at Narbonne about 1800. He received his doctor's diploma in Paris in 1839, became physician to several hospitals, and prepared with M. Rilliet his Traite clinique et pratique des maladies des enfants (new ed., 3 vols., Paris, 1853-'4), which won prizes from the medical academy and academy of sciences.