Brum (Czech, Brno, a ford), a city of Moravia, Austria, situated on a declivity at the confluence of the Schwarza and the Zwittawa, 70 m. N. of Vienna, and 116 m. S. E. of Prague; pop. in 1870, 73,464. Fortifications separate the city from the suburbs, of which there were 20 in 1871. It was formerly defended by the castle of Spielberg, which stands on a high hill just back of the town. Since the demolition of the defences by the French in 1809, the castle has been converted into a state prison, in which were confined Silvio Pellico and other political offenders. The most notable buildings are the cathedral of St. Peter; the church of St. James, with a spire about 300 ft. high, built between 1314 and 1480; the Landhaus, formerly an Augustinian convent; the barracks, once a Jesuit college; the Protestant church, built in 1867; the Hebrew temple; the palaces of Prince Dietrichstein and Prince Kaunitz, and the bishop's palace. A public park, the Augarten, was opened by Joseph II., and in the public gardens of the Franzenburg quarter are a monument to the emperor Francis I., and an obelisk commemorating the peace of 1815. The Zderad monument - one of the most ancient of Moravia - stands outside of the town.

Brtinn is a bishop's see, and the seat of the principal law and military courts for Moravia. There are two gymnasia, one German, the other Czech, a theological faculty, a technical academy, a normal school, a museum, a public library, botanical gardens, and institutions for the blind and for the deaf and dumb. In 1871 there were 23 literary and scientific societies, and 17journals and periodicals. The city has repeatedly been destroyed by fire, and in 1558 the plague carried off 4,000 of the inhabitants, to whose memory a column has been raised in the great square. The principal industry is the manufacture of wool, the most extensive establishment employing 160,000 spindles. Woollens are exported to Italy, Germany, and the United States, over 700 firms being engaged in this trade, and nearly 200 steam engines with over 4,000 horse power and an annual amount of 2,000,000 cwt. of coals are employed in it. Machinery and various other articles are also manufactured here.

Brunn.

Brunn.