I. Urbano

Urbano, an Italian statesman, born in Alessandria, June 29, 1808, died in Fro-sinone, June 5, 1873. He became an advocate, and in 1848 was elected a member of the Sardinian parliament. For a short time in July he was minister of instruction. A steady opponent of peace with Austria, he joined in December Gioberti's cabinet as minister of justice, and succeeded him in February, 1849, as its virtual head, with the portfolio of the interior. He retired on the abdication of Charles Albert after the disastrous battle of Novara at the end of March. His continued parliamentary opposition to Austrian domination in Italy resulted in the election of a new parliament, in which he formed a middle party (il connubio) acting in concert with Cavour and the liberal conservatives. In Cavour's cabinet Rattazzi became minister of justice in October, 1853, and at the end of May, 1855, minister of the interior. Early in 1858 he withdrew on account of a considerable accession to the ranks of the clerical party in the chamber, after having carried through the partial suppression of monasteries and other religious bodies.

In January, 1859, he was elected president of the chamber, and after the peace of Villafranca replaced Cavour as head of the cabinet, but again gave way to the latter on Jan. 20, 1860. His unpopularity was increased by his refraining from voting on the question of the annexation of Nice and Savoy to France, and it was only in February, 1861, that Cavour could prevail upon the chamber to accept him again as president. After the death of Cavour he opposed Ricasoli, and took his place as premier in March, 1862. Against his former policy, he was obliged to combat the revolutionists at Sarnico, Aspromonte, and other places, without gaining any advantage in the Roman question, and had to resign in December. In 1863 he fought a duel with his political adversary Minghetti. From April to October, 1867, he was for the last time prime minister. By the Garibaldians, who were soon afterward defeated at Mentana owing to the measures which he had taken, he was accused of subserviency to Napoleon III., while the clerical party charged him with encouraging the Garibaldians; but in parliament he vindicated his course (Dec. 18, 19) by pleading the international obligations which the government was bound to observe.

II. Marie Studolmine

Marie Studolmine, a French writer, wife of the preceding, born in London about 1830. Her mother was the princess Laetitia, a daughter of Lucien Bonaparte, and her father was Sir Thomas Wyse, English minister at Athens. The separation of her parents left her without resources, and Louis Philippe placed her in a royal school at St. Denis. In 1850 she married M. Frèdèric Solms, a rich Alsatian, from whom she separated in 1852. Louis Napoleon objected to her residing in Paris on account of her political intrigues, and she afterward lived in Savoy and at Nice under the name of the princess Marie de Solms, engaged in literary labor, and intimately associating and corresponding with many eminent men. In 1860 she returned to Paris, and subsequently went to Florence, where in 1862 she married Rattazzi. Lately she has resided in Paris. The best known of her many novels are Les mariages de la créole (1866) and Si j'étais reine (1868). She has also published poems and dramas (often acting in the latter), and edited several journals.