Villafranca, a town of Italy, in Venetia, on the Tartaro, 9 m. S: W. of Verona; pop. about 7,000. It has several churches and schools and the remains of a vast castellated structure. The chief branch of trade and industry is silk. Since the close of the last century the vicinity of Villafranca has repeatedly been the scene of battles. Charles Albert was defeated, July 25, 1848, by Radetzky, at the neighboring Custozza, and La Marmora on June 24, 1866, by the Austrians. But Villafranca is most memorable on account of the preliminary treaty concluded there July 11, 1859, personally between the emperors Napoleon III. and Francis Joseph, the main stipulation of which was the cession of Lombardy by the latter to Victor Emanuel of Sardinia. (See Italy, vol. ix., p. 453.) This treaty was ratified by the definitive peace of Zurich, Nov. 10, 1859.


See Serf.


See Buckingham.


See Pigeon.

Vincent Bourne

Vincent Bourne, an English Latin poet, born about 1700, died Dec. 2, 1747. He was a graduate of Cambridge and usher at Westminster school, where Cowper was among his pupils. A collection of his Latin versions of old English ballads, with some original poems, was published under the title of Poemata in 1734, and was followed by several others. In 1808 appeared his posthumous " Poetical Works," with his letters (2 vols., London; new ed., Oxford, 1826). Cowper translated several of Bourne's original Latin poems.

Vincent Voitlre

Vincent Voitlre, a French poet, born in Amiens in 1598, died in or near Paris, May 27, 1648. Though attached to Gaston of Orleans, he was employed in Italy by Richelieu; and under the regency of Anne of Austria he held several sinecures at the court. His passion for gambling and amours involved him in various difficulties. He was a leader in the society of the hotel Rambouillet, and one of the original members of the French academy. His letters and poems first appeared in 1649, and they are included in the Collection Charpentier, with notes by Ubicini (2 vols. 18mo, 1855).

Vincenzo Righini

Vincenzo Righini, an Italian composer, born in Bologna, Jan. 22, 1756, died there, Aug. 19, 1812. He studied counterpoint under Martini, and commenced as a singer at Parma; but his reputation as a composer soon surpassed that as a vocalist, and after three years at Prague he entered the service of Joseph II. at Vienna, remaining eight years. He was afterward successively chapelmaster to the elector of Mentz, and director of music at the royal theatre in Berlin. He composed 20 operas, mostly on classical subjects, and one entitled Don Giovanni, ossia il convitato di pietra, having a libretto similar to that afterward used by Mozart. He also wrote many arias and cantatas, a messe solennelle, and some instrumental works. His operas have fallen into disuse, but many of their arias are still sung.

Vincenzo Vela

Vincenzo Vela, an Italian sculptor, born at Ligurnetto, in the Swiss canton of Ticino, in 1822. He was brought up as a stone cutter, but perfected himself in Milan as a sculptor, and in 1844 won a competitive prize at Venice. After his return from the Italian war against Austria (1848) he refused to join the academy of fine arts at Milan, and settled in Turin. His works include statues representing "A Prayer," "Spartacus," "Hope and Resignation," "Music in Tears" (for Donizetti's funeral monument at Bergamo), " France and Italy " (a group presented in 1863 by the ladies of Milan to the empress Eugénie), and "Columbus and America" (a colossal group in plaster). His masterpiece, representing the last days of Napoleon at St. Helena, attracted much attention at the Paris exhibition of 1867, and is now in the metropolitan museum of art, New York.