Ralph Izard

Ralph Izard, an American statesman, born near Charleston, S. C, in 1742, died at South Bay, May 30,1804. He was educated at Cambridge, England, inherited an ample fortune, and in 1771 settled in London, from whence the troubled condition of American politica induced him in 1774 to retire to the continent. He subsequently endeavored to impress upon the British ministry the ill-advised nature of the course they were pursuing, but without effect. In 1780 he returned to the United States, where he was instrumental in procuring the appointment of Gen. Greene to the command of the southern army. He also pledged his whole estate as security for funds needed in the purchase of ships of war in Europe. In 1781 he entered the continental congress; and upon the adoption of the federal constitution he was elected a United States senator from South Carolina. The " Correspondence of Ralph Izard from 1774 to 1804, with a Short Memoir," was published by his daughter (Boston, 1844).

Ralph Mcholson Worum

Ralph Mcholson Worum, an English author, born at Thornton, North Durham, Dec. 29, 1812. He was educated at University college, London, studied painting and the fine arts, and practised portrait painting for some years in London. In 1846 he was appointed to prepare the official catalogue of the national gallery, in 1848 lecturer on ornamental art in the government schools of design, in 1852 librarian and keeper of casts, and in 1855 keeper and secretary of the national gallery. He has published "The Epochs of Painting Characterized: a Sketch of the History of Painting" (2 vols., London, 1846); "Analysis of Ornament" (1856); " The Epochs of Painting: a Biographical and Critical Essay" (1864); and "The Life and Works of Hans Holbein " (1866). He edited a " Biographical Catalogue of the Principal Italian Painters " and " Lectures by Royal Academicians," and wrote the life of Turner for the "Turner Gallery".

Ramadan, Or Ramazan (The Hot Month

Ramadan, Or Ramazan (The Hot Month, from Arab. ramida, to glow with heat), the ninth month of the Mohammedan year, during the whole of which a rigorous fast is commanded by the Koran, in commemoration of the first divine revelations received by the prophet. No one is allowed food or drink from sunrise until the appearance of the stars; and those who are unable to observe the ordinance on account of sickness, must fast during the month immediately succeeding their recovery. The Moslems compensate themselves for this rigor during the day by feasting at its close; and Ramadan is succeeded by three days of feasting called the little Bairam, the two corresponding to the Christian Lent and Easter. (See Bairam).


See India, Religions and Religious Literature of, vol. ix., p. 223.


Rambouillet, a town of France, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, 30 m. S. W. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 4,725. It contains a palace built in the shape of a horse shoe, protected by ditches and flanked with five strong towers, in one of which Francis I. died. It is sur-sounded by beautiful gardens planned by Le Nōtre and a large park. The extensive forest adjoining was the favorite sporting ground of Charles X., who after the triumph of the revolution of July, 1830, in Paris, made an ineffectual show of resistance here. A school for daughters of officers was established in the palace in 1852.