Roswell Dwight Hitchcock, an American clergyman, born at East Machias, Me., Aug. 15, 1817. He graduated at Amherst college in 1836, and in 1838-'9 was a member of the theological seminary at Andover. He was a teacher during one term at Phillips academy, Andover, and in 1839-'40 tutor at Amherst college. In 1842-'4 he was a resident licentiate at Andover seminary, and on Nov. 19, 1845, was ordained pastor of the first Congregational church in Exeter, N. H., which office he held till 1852, although spending the year 1847-'8 in study in Germany. In 1852 he was appointed professor of natural and revealed religion in Bowdoin college, and in 1855 of church history in the union theological seminary, New York, which office he still holds (1874). During the civil war he delivered a number of addresses upon national affairs, taking a very earnest stand in favor of the government. In 1866 he visited Italy and Greece, and in 1869-'70 Egypt, Sinai, and Palestine. After his return he took an active part in the organization of the Palestine exploration society, and in 1871 was elected its president. In 1869 he was elected a trustee of Amherst college.

He received the degree of D. D, from Bowdoin college in 1855, and of LL. D. from Williams college in 1873. He has published a "Complete Analysis of the Bible" (New York, 1869), and numerous orations, addresses, and sermons. He has also contributed many important articles to the religious periodical press, and was one of the editors of the "American Theological Review" from 1863 to 1870.