Adam Johann Von Krusenstern, a Russian navigator, born at Haggud, Esthonia, Nov. 19, 1770, died in Esthonia, Aug. 24, 1846. From 1793 to 1799 he was in the English service. During the reign of Alexander I. he was made a captain in the Russian navy, and placed in command of a scientific and commercial expedition planned by himself, which sailed from Cronstadt in the summer of 1803, to explore the north Pacific coasts of America and Asia. It was described by Espenburg, Lisianskoi, Langsdorff, Tilesius, and in part by Krusenstern himself, in his Reise um die Welt in den Jahr-en 1803-'6 (3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1810-'12), which has been translated into many languages (English translation by Hoppner, London, 1813; French, 1821). He was made curator of the university of Dorpat in 1824, vice admiral in 1829, and admiral in 1841.
Adam Pynaker, a Dutch painter, born at Pynaker, between Delft and Schiedam, in 1621, died in 1673. In his youth he resided for several years at Rome, where he acquired an ideal or pastoral style of landscape painting. His pictures contain charming effects of sunlight, with clear, warm skies, and trees and other natural objects are painted with a broad, free pencil, and great richness of color. The best of his works are of cabinet size, and many of these are owned in England.
Adam Stanislaw Nariszewicz, a Polish historian, born in Lithuania in 1733, died at Jano-wiec, Galicia, in 1796. He entered the order of Jesuits in 1748, travelled through Germany, France, and Italy, was appointed professor at Warsaw, and became bishop of Smolensk in 1773, and of Luck in 1790. His "History of Poland" (8 vols., Warsaw, 1780 et seq.) gained him the surname of the Polish Tacitus. Among his other works are a history of the Tartars, idyls, satires, and other poems.
Adam Van Oort, a Flemish painter, born in Antwerp in 1557, died there in 1641. He was instructed by his father, a painter of history, and had a school in Antwerp, where Rubens and Jordaens were instructed, the latter becoming his son-in-law. He was intemperate, brutal, and avaricious.
Adam Weishaipt, the founder of the order of the Illuminati, born in Ingolstadt, Feb. 6, 1748, died in Gotha, Nov. 18,1830. He was educated in his native place, where he became in 1772 extraordinary professor of law, and in 1775 professor of natural and canon law. In 1776 he founded a secret society for the propagation of peculiar humanitarian views. (See Illuminati.) In 1785 he retired to Gotha, where he was made councillor of state. His most important writings are: Apologie der Illuminaten (Frankfort and Leipsic, 1786); Das verbesserte System der Illuminaten (1787); Pythagoras, oder Betrachtung iiber die geheime Welt- und Eegierungskunst (Frankfort, 1790); Materialien zur Beforderung der Welt- unci Menschenkunde (3 vols., Gotha, 1810); Ueber Staatsausgaben (Landshut, 1820); and Ueber das Besteuerungssystem (1820).