Camarina, an ancient town on the S. coast of Sicily, near the marsh or lake of the same name, founded by a colony from Syracuse about 600 B. C. It was an exposed position in the Syracusan, Carthaginian, and Roman wars, and was several times taken, retaken, destroyed, and recolonized. It was at last utterly destroyed by the Saracens, who captured it about 850.


See Luzon.


Camberwell, a parish of England, county of Surrey, in the S. suburbs of London; pop. in 1871, 111,302. The old village of Camber-ville is now the business portion of the parish, while the rising ground in the S. and S. E., known as the Grove, Champion, Denmark, and Heme hills, is built up with handsome modern mansions. The parish church, in the later Gothic style, was built about 1520, and enlarged in 1786. There are many other churches and dissenting chapels, a free grammar school founded in 1618, and several charity schools. The parish is intersected by many railways, and the Surrey canal terminates in it.

Cambodia River

See Mekong.


Camborne, a market town and parish of Cornwall, England, 12 in. W. N. W. of Falmouth; pop. in 1871, 7,208. It is a neatly built modern town, and derives its importance mainly from its vicinity to very productive tin and copper mines. It has a handsome granite church, built in the later Gothic style, several dissenting chapels, and a free school.


Cambria, a S. W. county of Pennsylvania, drained by affluents of the Susquehanna and Alleghany rivers; area, 670 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,569. It consists of an elevated table land with a broken surface. Bituminous coal and iron are abundant. It is crossed by the Pennsylvania Central railroad and the Ebens-burg branch. The chief productions in 1870 were 56,938 bushels of wheat, 47,385 of rye, 153,252 of Indian corn, 346,991 of oats, 89,-368 of potatoes, 25,801 tons of hay, 428,273 lbs. of butter, and 47,545 of wool. There were 4,519 horses, 6,537 milch cows, 6,142 other cattle, 16,389 sheep, and 7,486 swine. Capital, Ebensburg.

Cambrian System

Cambrian System, a group of fossiliferous rocks which underlies and is older than the Llandeilo or lowest Silurian strata, and rests immediately upon the abnormal masses of gneiss and other rocks which contain no organic remains. The name was applied by Prof. Sedgwick, by whom the system was first described, on account of its extensive development in northern Wales, Cambria being the Latin name of that country. The characteristic rocks are gritstones, sandstones, clay slate, etc, containing few organic remains; and in some localities they appear metamorphosed into chloride and mica schists, and into gneiss. The oldest fossils of Europe have been found in this system, but the oldest known organic remains were found in 1864 in the lower Laurentian system of Canada.

Camel Coal

See Coal.


See Giraffe.


Camelopardalus, the camelopard or giraffe, a constellation instituted by Hevelius. It lies between the north pole, the Wagoner, Cassiopeia, and the head of the Great Bear, and contains small stars of the 4th magnitude only.