Francois Quesnay, a French economist, born at Mérey, near Versailles, June 4, 1694, died in Versailles, Dec. 16, 1774. He began life as a surgeon, and in 1737 became perpetual secretary of the surgical academy; but in 1744 he obtained a diploma as a physician. He was a favorite medical attendant of the royal family and of Mme. de Pompadour, and occupied rooms next to hers in the palace at Versailles. He published many works on medicine and surgery, which are now obsolete; and he is chiefly remembered as the father of the agricultural system of economy, called by him physiocracy. (See Political Economy.) His Tableau éco-nomique (1758) was called by Laharpe "the Koran of economists." His economical works were edited by Dupont de Nemours, under the title Physiocratie, ou Constitution naturelle du gouvernement le plus avantageux au genre humain (Paris and Leyden, 1768; reprinted in the Collection des principaux économistes, Paris, 1846).
Francois Timoleon De Choisy, a French writer, born in Paris in 1644, died Oct. 2, 1724. His delicate appearance induced his mother to dress him in feminine attire; he continued to wear it for many years, and was in the early part of his life notorious for his dissolute habits. In 1676 he accompanied the cardinal de Bouillon to Rome to attend the election of Pope Innocent XI. In 1085 he went on a mission to the king of Siam, of which he has given an interesting account. On his return to France he devoted his whole time to literary pursuits, was elected to the academy in 1G87, wrote the history of several French kings, and attempted to present the annals of the church in a more accessible form than the learned Fleury. His Memo ires pour servir a l'histoire de Louis XIV., which have been printed in Michaud's Collection de memoires, and his Journal du voyage de Siam fait en 1685 et 1686, are written in a lively and agreeable style.
Francois Zcnon Collombet, a French author, born at Sieges, in the department of Jura, March 28, 1808, died in Lyons, Oct. 16, 1853. He studied theology in accordance with the wishes of an uncle, but having inherited some property he turned to literature. He resided at Lyons, where he occupied a single room for 23 years. He wrote for Feller's Dictionnaire historique, the Biographie universelle, and the Revue du Lyonnais. In 1848 he received from the academy of Lyons a prize for an Eloge de Chateaubriand. He died from overwork, leaving 40 volumes of writings, including Cours de litterature profane et sacree (4 vols. 8vo); Histoire de Saint Jerome (2 vols., 1844); His-toire critique de la suppression des Jesuites (2 vols., 1846); and Histoire de la Sainte Eglise de Vienne (3 vols.).
Franeisque Bouillier, a French philosopher, born in Lyons, July 12, 1813. He became professor and dean of the faculty, and in 1856 president of the academy of that city; and since 1867 he has been director of the superior normal school. He prepared French translations of some of the works of Kant and Fichte, and is the author of the Histoire de la philosophic cartesienne (2 vols., Paris, 1854; 2d ed., 1867).