Bouillon. I. Henri De La Tour D'Auvergne, duke de, marshal of France, born Sept. 28, 1555, died March 25, 1623. During the first part of his life he was known as viscount of Turenne. He received a military training under the superintendence of his grandfather, the constable de Montmorency. While still young he was converted to Calvinism, and became an adherent of Henry of Navarre. After his accession to the throne of France, Henry conferred on him the hand and estates of Charlotte de la Marck, the heiress of the duchy of Bouillon, and thus he became a powerful prince and assumed the title of duke de Bouillon. On the evening of his marriage, bidding adieu to his bride for a few hours, he stormed the fortress of Stenay, which was held by the Lorrainers. This made Henry say that he would make marriages every day if he could be sure of such wedding presents. He afterward participated in the conspiracy of Biron, and fled to Geneva, where he remained till 1606. During the regency of Maria de' Medici, Bouillon sometimes sided with the queen, sometimes with her opponents; now supporting the Calvinists, then making peace with the court. Yet he found time to establish at Sedan a large library and a college.
After the death of his first wife he married Elizabeth of Nassau, daughter of William, prince of Orange, by whom he had two sons, the younger of whom was the celebrated Turenne. II. Frederic Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, duke de, a French soldier, son of the preceding, born at Sedan, Oct. 22, 1605, died at Pontoise, Aug. 9, 1652. He was brought up in the Calvinistic creed, and learned the profession of arms under his uncles, Maurice of Nassau and Frederick Henry. In 1635 he entered the service of France, but six years later, from aversion for Richelieu, he joined the Spaniards. At the battle of La Marfee, July 6, 1641, fighting on the side of the count de Soissons, he displayed extraordinary ability, but the withdrawal of the Spanish allies rendered victory useless. He then made peace with the cardinal, and was appointed lieutenant general, but the next year was arrested as an accomplice in the conspiracy of Cinq-Mars. He probably would have been executed if his wife, who was in possession of Sedan, had not threatened to deliver it up to the Spaniards. After the death of Louis XIII. he went to Rome, was converted to Catholicism, and placed in command of the papal troops.
In 1649 he returned to France, where he actively participated in the civil war against Mazarin.