Kalevala, the national epic of Finland. See Finland, vol. vii., p. 203.
Kalgan, Or Changkiakan, a town of China, in the province of Chihli, 110 m. N. W. of Peking, renowned as a commercial station between Russia and China, and as one of the great market towns of the empire. It extends several miles along the W. bank of a tributary of the Yangho, the stream breaking through a narrow gorge and forming a natural outlet for the highway of N. Asia. Remains of a gate of the great wall are visible on either side of the gorge, and the scenery is fine.
Kalisz (Ger. Kalisch). I. A W. government of European Russia, in the kingdom of Poland, bordering on the governments of Plock, Warsaw, and Piotrkow, and the Prussian province of Posen; area, 4,200 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 601,029. II. One of the oldest towns of Russian Poland, capital of the government, between two branches of the Pros-na, on the Prussian frontier, 130 m. S. W. of Warsaw; pop. in 1867, 13,602, of whom one fifth were Jews. It has several higher schools, a theatre, and a fine promenade. It was conspicuous during the wars of the Polish and Silesian princes in the middle ages, and was taken in 1656 by the Swedes. The Russians and Saxons gained a victory here over Charles XII. in 1706, and the Russians over the French in February, 1813. A few days after the latter event an alliance was formed here between the czar and the king of Prussia.
Peter, a Swedish botanist, born at Osterbotten in 1715, died in Abo, Nov. 16, 1779. He was educated at Upsal, and on the suggestion of Linnaeus he was selected in 1745 by the Swedish government to make a botanical tour of North America. He arrived in Philadelphia in the summer of 1748, and remained in America till 1751. travelling ■ and gathering specimens of plants in Canada, New York, and Pennsylvania. On returning to Sweden he published En resa til Norra Amerika (3 vols., Stockholm, 1753-61), translated into English by John Reinhold Forster under the title of "Travels in North America " (2d ed., 2 vols., London, 1772); it was also translated into German and Dutch. He was made professor of natural history at Abo, and published numerous dissertations covering a wide range of botanical subjects.
Kalocsa, a town of Hungary, near the E. bank of the Danube, in the county and 69 m. S. of the city of Pesth; pop. in 1869, 16,302. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop, and has an episcopal seminary and a gymnasium. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture and the cultivation of wine.
Kama, a river of Russia, the principal affluent of the Volga. It rises in a branch of the Ural mountains in the N. E. part of the government of Viatka, runs first N. and N. E., then takes a S. and S. W. direction through the governments of Perm and Kazan, forming intermediately the boundary between Viatka and Ufa, and joins the Volga, after a course of about 1,200 m., 40 m. from the city of Kazan, almost doubling the volume of the Volga. It receives in its course the tributary rivers Vi-shera, Tchusovaya, Bielaya, and Ik on the left, and the Obva and Viatka on the right. The Kama is navigated by barges to Perm, and by flatboats much higher. Its waters at Perm have a depth of 23 ft. less at the end of summer than in the freshets of spring. It is connected with a branch of the Dwina by a canal 12 m. long, establishing water communication between the Caspian and "White seas.