Oranienbaum, a town of Russia, on the gulf of Finland, in the government and 20 m. W. of the city of St. Petersburg, opposite Cronstadt. It is celebrated for its picturesque situation, and for an imperial palace, with a magnificent park, built by Prince Menshikoff, a favorite of Peter the Great, which subsequently became the property of the crown and the favorite residence of Peter III. The palace consists of three buildings, connected by colonnades and surrounded in every direction by gardens and orangeries (Oranienbšune), whence the name of the town. A canal connects the pleasure grounds directly with the gulf of Finland. In a neighboring grove, in the utmost seclusion, is a little ch‚teau known as the Solitude. The road from Oranienbaum to St. Petersburg is lined almost continuously with parks and villas, and passes the imperial summer palaces Strielna and Peterhof.
See Butterfly, and Moth.
Ordericus Vitalis, an English chronicler, born at Attingesham (now Atcham), near Shrewsbury, Feb. 17, 1075, died about 1143. He passed most of his life in the monastery of St. Evroult in Normandy. He wrote an " Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy " down to the year 1141, which was first printed in Duchesne's Historioe Normannorum Scrip-tores (1619). There is an English translation by T. Forester in Bonn's "Antiquarian Library " (4 vols., 1853-'6).
Orders L\ Council, a term applied to orders made by the sovereign of Great Britain by advice of the privy council. Strictly these can only be made in the exercise of executive authority, and an order in its nature legislative would be unconstitutional as encroaching upon the authority of parliament. The famous orders in council of 1807-8, made in retaliation for the Berlin and Milan decrees of Napoleon, were condemned as legislative, but were defended by the supporters of the government as being issued in pursuance of the sovereign's authority to declare and prosecute war. In emergencies, when parliament is not in session, the executive sometimes assumes to take legislative action on some subjects, relying upon being indemnified by act of parliament afterward, as for instance when circumstances are thought to render imperative a suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, or of specie payments by the bank of England.