Orebro, a city of Sweden, capital of a lan or province of the same name, situated at the W. end of Lake Hjelmar, which receives here the Swarta river and forms a harbor, 100 m. W. of Stockholm; pop. about 9,000. It is of great antiquity. The town has manufactories of cloth and hosiery, and an important printing establishment. In the vicinity are the Adolfs-berg mineral springs. Here were held the memorable assemblies of the states under Gus-tavus Vasa in which Lutheranism was declared the religion of the kingdom (1528), and the crown was made hereditary (1540). Preliminaries of peace between Sweden and England were concluded here in April, 1812; and a treaty of peace between England and Russia was signed here July 12, 1812.

Oregon River

See Columbia River.


See Histiaea.


See Laurel.


Orf (cyprinus orfus, Linn.), a species of carp, one of the handsomest of the family, and as an article of food one of the best in the freshwater streams of Europe. It is now very rare. It somewhat resembles the C. gibelio or C. ca-rassius of Germany, both called the Prussian carp, and may be a mere variety. It can thrive in very dirty water, as it keeps near the surface. (See Carp).


See Urfa, and Edessa.

Organ Mountains

See Brazil, vol. ill., p. 218.


Oriflamme (Lat. auriflamma), the banner of the Capetian kings of France. It was originally that of the abbey of St. Denis, being used in religious ceremonies, and carried also by the counts of Vexin, in their capacity of patrons of the monastery, in the wars they waged for its protection. Philip I. of France having annexed Vexin to his dominions, the charge of carrying the oriflamme devolved upon himself and his successors. Louis VI. raised it for the first time in 1124. It was disused after the defeat of Agincourt in 1415. It was of red or flame-colored silk, with two notches at its end, adorned with green silk tassels, and hanging from a gilded shaft.


Orihuela, a city of Valencia, Spain, in the province and 30 m. S. W. of the city of Alicante, situated in a fertile and beautiful country on the Segura; pop. about 10,000. Several large villages adjoin it. It was under Moorish domination for 500 years, and still has a Moorish look. It has many squares, monasteries, palatial private buildings, churches, including a fine cathedral, several educational institutions, and public libraries. Linen and silks are manufactured. The Moors called it Auri-welah. It was wrested from them in 1264 by James I. of Aragon.

Orlando Dior Orlandus Lassus Lasso

Orlando Dior Orlandus Lassus Lasso, a Flemish composer, born in Mons, Hainaut, in 1520, died in Munich, June 14, 1594. He was taken to Italy when a child on account of his fine voice, and until he was grown up was employed as a singer in Milan and Naples. Subsequently he returned to Flanders, settled in Antwerp, and passed the latter part of his life at Munich in the service of the duke of Bavaria. He was a contemporary of Pales-trina, and one of the most famous composers of the age, excelling in harmony, and being one of the first to attempt chromatic passages. His secular music, consisting of Latin, Italian, German, and French songs, is better than his compositions for the church, in which he is inferior to Palestrina. A statue has been erected to him in his birthplace. His works were published in Paris in 1576 under the title of Melanges d' Orland Lassus, and in 1584 appeared Continuation des Melanges.