Louis VI, the Fat, the fifth Capetian king of France, born about 1078, died Aug. 1, 1137. The son of Philip I. by his first wife, Bertha of Holland, he was pursued by the hatred of his stepmother, Bertrade of Montfort, and obliged for a while to seek refuge in England. In 1100 he was associated in the government with his father, whom he succeeded in 1108. Full of spirit and ambition, he aimed at placing the royal authority upon a solid basis, and waged incessant war against the troublesome vassals of the crown, including his own brother Philip, count of Mantes, the lords of Montlhery and Coucy, and the counts of Montfort and Montmorency. He tried to secure the duchy of Normandy to William Cliton, son of Robert Courteheuse, but failed in the attempt, being defeated at Brenneville in 1119 by Henry I. of England, who had seized upon that duchy. This check would have proved fatal to the power of Louis, had not the clergy armed their parishioners and led them to his support. 'Peace was finally restored by the council held at Rheims under the presidency of Pope Calix-tus II. A few years later, on the death of Charles the Good, Louis invested his favorite William Cliton with the county of Flanders. He had some hand in the communal revolution that distinguished the 12th century, but was guided in this by his interest rather than by any principle, and does not deserve the name of "father of communes" which is sometimes applied to him.