Palestrina (anc. Prameste), a town of Italy, in the province and 23 m. E. S. E. of Rome; pop. about 6,000. It is built almost entirely on the site of the ancient temple of Fortune, which after its restoration by Sulla occupied the whole lower slope of the hill, more than 2,000 ft. high, with a citadel on the summit, which was replaced by a mediaeval castle. The only notable buildings are the deserted Bar-berini palace and the church of San Rosario, with tombs of the Barberini and Colonna families, the latter preponderating here during the middle ages. (See PrAEneste).
Palffy, a Hungarian family founded by Count Conrad of Altenburg, ambassador of the emperor Conrad II. in Hungary, in the 11th century, whose descendants formed in the following century the houses of Konth and Hedervar. Paul II. of the former branch assumed the name Palffy (son of Paul), to which his descendant Paul III. added that of Erdod, the family name of his wife. Nicholas II., grandson of the latter (1550-1600), gave celebrity to the family by his prowess against the Turks; and his son Stephen II. was made a count in 1634. Subsequently there were other branches of the house, and the representative of the elder branch, Joseph Francis (1764-1827), a descendant of Nicholas II., was made a prince in 1807. The most distinguished soldier among the younger branch was Count John IV. (1659-1751), who restored peace in Hungary in 1711 by the treaty of Szatmar, and was appointed governor general there by Maria Theresa in 1741. The family is still prominent in Hungary.
See India, Races and Languages of, vol. ix., p. 216.
Palieologis, the name of a Byzantine family, first mentioned in history in the 11th century, and which occupied the throne of Constantinople from 1261 to 1453, the year in which that city was taken by the Turks. The first emperor of the family was Michael VIII.; the last, Constantine XIIL, was killed while fighting in defence of his capital. A member of this family, Theodore, a son of Andronicus II., received the principality of Montferrat in Italy in 1305, in right of his mother Yolante, and in the hands of this branch it remained till 1533. Another branch of the house reigned in the Morea from 1380 to 1460. The family is supposed to have become extinct with Theodore Palaeologus, who died in England in 1693.
Palimjrum, a promontory of Lucania in Italy, on the Tyrrhenian sea, about half way between Velia and Buxentum; lat. 40° N., long. 15° 15' E. It derived its name from the tradition, recorded by Virgil, that on this spot Palinurus the pilot of iEneas was buried. Some ruins of ancient buildings, still visible on the summit of the headland, are popularly known as the tomb of Palinurus. Near this promontory, during the first Punic war, 253 B. C., a Roman fleet under the consul Cervilius Csepio and Sempronius Blaesus was wrecked and 150 vessels lost; and again in 36 B. C. a portion of the fleet of Octavius was lost on the coast between Velia and Palinurus Portus, a harbor formed by the cape, and now called Porto di Palinuro.