Perihelion

Perihelion (Gr. Perihelion 1300164 , about, and Perihelion 1300165 , sun), that point of the orbit of a planet or a comet where it is nearest to the sun. The distance of this point from the sun is called the perihelion distance of the body. It is opposed to aphelion.

Perino Del, Or Pietro Buonaccorsi Vaga

Perino Del, Or Pietro Buonaccorsi Vaga, an Italian painter, born in Florence in 1500, died in Rome in 1547. He adopted the names of his teachers Vaga and Perino, and was employed by Raphael on some of the principal designs in fresco for the Vatican. After the death of Raphael he rose into great reputation. In 1527, during the sack of Rome, he was imprisoned; and on being ransomed he went to Genoa, where he embellished the palace of the Dorias. He returned to Rome during the pontificate of Paul III. He designed after the style of Michel Angelo, and excelled in mythological, classical, and religious subjects. His best work is the "Creation of Eve " in Rome.

Periosteum

See Bone.

Peripatetic Philosophy

See Aristotle.

Peristeria

See Holy Spirit Plant.

Permutation

See Combinations.

Pernau

Pernau, a seaport town of Russia, in Livonia, at the mouth of the Pernau, on the gulf and 100 m. N. by E. of the city of Riga; pop. in 1867, 9,527. It has two Lutheran churches, a Greek church, and several schools. The principal trade is in flax, hemp, various seeds, grain, wood, and leather. The shipping in 1873 comprised 240 vessels; value of imports, 287,217 rubles; of exports, 7,006,317 rubles.

Peronne

Peronne, a town of France, in the department of Somme and on the right bank of the river Somme, 27 m. E. by N". of Amiens; pop. in 1866, 4,262. It is strongly fortified, and acquired historical importance under the reign of Louis XL, who was imprisoned here by Charles the Bold (1468). In 1536 the town won the designation of la Vierge or the im-impregnable by a successful resistance to the besieging imperialists. The league was signed at Peronne in February, 1576. In 1815 it surrendered to Wellington, and on Jan. 9, 1871, to the Germans after 13 days' resistance.

Perquimans

Perquimans, a N E. county of North Carolina, bordered S. by Albemarle sound, and drained by Perquimans river; area, about 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,945, of whom 3,998 were colored. It has a nearly level surface, and the soil is generally fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 34,232 bushels of wheat, 310,135 of Indian corn, 27,519 of oats, 32,851 of sweet potatoes, 1,340 tons of hay, and 593 bales of cotton. There were 733 horses, 1,061 milch cows, 1,906 other cattle, 847 sheep, and 7,367 swine. Capital, Hertford.

Persephone

See Proserpine.

Persis

Persis, the name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to Persia proper, corresponding nearly to the modern Persian province of Fars or Farsistan. According to the earliest accounts, the territory included also the region of Carmania, the modern Kerman, but later geographers distinguish between the two. It was bounded N. by Media Magna, E. by Carmania, S. W. by the Persian gulf, and N. W. by the river Oroatis and Susiana or Elam. The earliest known capital of this region was Pasargadse, the second Persepolis, besides which there were but few cities of note, such as Gogana, on the gulf, and Gabse, in the interior. The rivers, all insignificant, included the Araxes, Granis, and Sitacus. (See Fars, and Persia).