See Balsams.


Styx (connected with Gr.στνγείν to abhor), in Greek mythology, the chief river of the lower world, around which it flows seven times. The name was said to be derived from the nymph Styx, the daugther of Oceanus, who, when Jupiter prepared to wrest the power from the hands of Saturn and the Titans, was the first of the immortals to answer to his call, coming with her children to his assistance. He made her children his constant attendants, and herself the oath-sanctioner of the gods. In the Hesiodic theogony Styx is called the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She was the mother of Zelos (zeal), Nike (victory), Bia (strength), and Cratos (power).


See Swabia.


Sublimation, a process of distillation in which the vapors condense in a solid form. It takes place naturally in volcanic fissures and craters. Deposits thus formed are terme'd sublimates. A great variety of mineral substances are subject to vaporize by heat and become solid again on cooling; and the number of such increases with the increased degree of heat which we can apply. Some vegetable substances also possess the same property, as camphor and benzoin. Sublimation is much employed as a means of separating volatile from fixed bodies, usually for obtaining the former in a purer state. The vapor is sometimes chemically changed by contact with the oxygen of the air, and the sublimate is then of a different composition from the original body, as when oxide of zinc is produced by subjecting the metal or its ores to heat exposed to the air.

Sublime Porte

Sublime Porte (Fr., lofty or magnificent gate; Turk. babi humayun; Ar. ed-davlet el-aliye), the title officially given to the Ottoman government. Orkhan (1326-'60) erected in his capital Brusa a palace with an imposing entrance, on which he bestowed the name of "Sublime Porte," which from that time to the present has been applied to the monarch and government of the Ottomans. This use of the term is partly owing to the oriental custom of transacting public business at the gate or in the antechamber of the palace.


Where one person becomes entitled in law to the position of another as creditor or as the holder of securities, he is said to be subrogated to the rights of the other, and in contemplation of law there is a substitution or subrogation. When a surety pays the debt of his principal, he becomes subrogated to the rights of the creditor in any securities he may have held, with the right to enforce them for his own indemnity. So if one having a lien on property pays off a prior lien for the protection of his own, he becomes entitled to hold it against the interest of those who should have paid; and so would one tenant in common who should discharge a mortgage upon the whole title. The doctrine rests on principles of equity, and is one of very general application.