Valentin Magnan

Valentin Magnan, a French physician, born in Perpignan, March 16, 1835. He completed his studies in Paris in 1863, and won in 1865 the Civrieux academical prize for his Etude clinique sur la paralyse generate (new ed., 1873). In 1867 he became physician to the asylum of Ste. Anne, connected with the cen-tral administration of lunatics, and here he acquired celebrity by his lectures on the fatal effects of alcohol and absinthe. An additional Civrieux prize was awarded to him in 1873 for his treatise Des diverses formes du delire alco-olique et de leur traitement. His Etude ex-perimentale et clinique sur l'alcoolisme (1871), and contributions to medical and other journals, have exerted much influence in promoting the cause of temperance in France.

Valentinians

See Gnostics, vol. viii., p. 52.

Valerias Harpocration

Valerias Harpocration, a Greek philologist, who according to some flourished in the 2d century A. D., and according to others about the middle of the 4th. He was a native of Alexandria in Egypt, and the author of a valuable lexicon, still extant, to the works of the Attic orators. The earliest edition was published at Venice in 1503; the most recent is that of Bekker, which appeared at Berlin in 1833.

Valerius Maximts

Valerius Maximts, a Roman author, who flourished during the reign of Tiberius. Nothing is known of his life except that he accompanied Sextus Pompius, the friend of Ovid, into Asia. His name is appended to a collection of historical anecdotes under the title of Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium Libri IX. The compilation embraces a large variety of subjects, and as a historical authority is of some value. His diction is very ornate, but often incorrect and obscure. He was one of the favorite authors of his time, and the frequent copying of his works has undoubtedly been very injurious to the text. His books were also a favorite study in the middle ages, and were frequently imitated (as by Saxo Grammaticus), abridged, and translated. Epitomes of his works by Julius Paris and Januarius Nepotianus are extant. The best edition with critical apparatus is Halm's (Leipsic, 1865). It was translated into English by W. Speed (London, 1678).

Valerius Publicola

See Publicola.

Valhalla

See Mythology, vol. xii., p. 120.

Valladolid, A City Of Mexico

See Morelia.

Valladolid, A Town Of Honduras

See Comayagua.

Valley

Valley, a central county of Nebraska, intersected by Loup fork and its N. branch; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 287. The surface is rolling, and consists chiefly of productive prairies.

Vallombrosa (Shady Valley)

Vallombrosa (Shady Valley), an abbey in a valley of the Apennines about 15 m. E. of Florence. It was founded by St. Giovanni Gualberto about 1038, under the rule of St. Benedict, and the institution was approved by Pope Alexander II. in 1070. The original purpose of the founder was to establish separate hermitages, but the cenobitic or community life soon prevailed, and the Vallombrosians are now recognized as a branch of the reformed Benedictines. In 1500 they exchanged their gray habit for a brown one, and in 1662, on their union with the Silvestrines, adopted a black dress. The present buildings were erected in 1637. The abbey was wealthy. It was suppressed in 1863; the monastery and church are now occupied by the royal school of forestry, opened in 1869.