Caserta. I. Or Terra di Lavoro, a province of Italy, formerly a part of the kingdom of Naples, bounded by the provinces of Rome, Aquila, Campobasso, Benevento, Avellino, and Naples, and the Mediterranean; area, 2,307 sq. m.; pop. in 1872 695,754. It comprises the districts of Caserta, Nola, Sora, Gaeta, and Piedimonte d'Alife. The most important mountains are Mt. Matese in the southeast, the Tifati mountains in the south, and the Mas-sico in the northwest. The chief rivers are the Garigliano, with its tributary the Liri, and the Volturno. Agriculture is flourishing, and cattle raising is conducted on a large scale. The province has large woods and silk, linen, and tapestry factories. The marshes N. of the Volturno have by drainage been converted into arable land. II. The capital of the province, situated in a fertile plain on the railway line from Naples to Capua, 17 m. N. E. of Naples; pop. in 1872, 29,142. It is the seat of a bishop, has a cathedral, a seminary, numerous churches, a convent, a military school, and excellent barracks, and is noted for its magnificent royal palace and aqueduct, both constructed by Vanvitelli for Charles III. The palace contains a chapel and a large theatre, adorned with columns from an ancient temple of Serapis. The gardens are supplied with water from a distance of 27 m. by means of a fine aqueduct.

The principal branch of industry is the manufacture of silks. - On the hills behind Caserta is Caserta Vecchia, surrounded by a wall and towers probably of the 8th century, and containing a splendid cathedral and other churches. It was once a place of great importance, but has been eclipsed since the foundation of Caserta. Both towns were founded by the Lombards.