Chittagong, Or Chittagaon. I. A district of British India, lying beyond the Ganges, but included in the province of Bengal, bounded N. by independent Tiperah, E. by Burmah and Aracan, S. by Aracan, and W. by the bay of Bengal, between lat. 20° 45'and 23° 25' N., lon. 91° 32' and 93° E.; length from N. to S., 185 m.; greatest breadth, 80 m.; area, exclusive of wooded hill tracts on the E. frontier, about 3,000 sq. m.; pop. about 1,000,000. It has several rivers, the chief of which is the Chittagong, which is formed by the junction of the Kurrumfoolee and the Chingree, and flows into the bay of Bengal. A large part of the surface is occupied by portions of the great mountain range extending from Assam S. to Cape Negrais, and several of the summits in this district have an elevation of from 3,000 to 8,000 ft. above the sea. The climate is similar to that of Bengal, except that the rainy season is longer. The agricultural products, most of which are obtained with little labor, are rice, sugar, hemp, oats, tobacco, mustard, betel nut, indigo, ginger, and coffee. The exports are timber, salt, coarse cloth, and elephants, of which many are annually caught here for the government.

The inhabitants are aborigines resembling the Burmese, Bengalese, and Mughs; the Mohammedans outnumber the Hindoos in the proportion of 3 to 2. The mountains are the retreat of several wild tribes whom no government has ever reduced to subjection. During the wars between the Moguls and Afghans, Chittagong was held by Aracan, from which it was conquered by Aurungzebe toward the close of the 17th century. It was ceded to the East India company by the nawaub of Bengal in 1760, and has been included in the government of Aracan since the company acquired the latter from Burmah in 1826. II. The capital of the above described district (sometimes called Islamabad), an unhealthy, declining place, on the river of the same name, 212 m. E. of Calcutta, and 160 m. N. of Akvab. It was once important for trade and ship building, but rice, which it once largely exported, is now got more cheaply in the ports of Aracan, and its ship building business has been transferred to Maulmain in Tenasserim.