Cochabamba (cocha, a lake, and pampa, a plain). I. A department of Bolivia, bounded by La Paz, Beni, Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca, and Oruro; area, 20,808 sq. m.; pop. about 380,-000. It includes almost every climate, perpetual snows covering the mountains on its N. border, while the sugar cane and cacao grow to perfection in its rich valleys. Gold and other min-erals exist, but mining receives little attention. The principal productions are cotton, sugar, dyewoods, and timber. It is divided into the provinces of Cochabamba, Sacaba, Tapacari, Arque, Ayopaya, Clissa, and Misque. The province of Cochabamba occupies a great plain at the foot of the snowy mountains, the passes leading to it being nearly 15,000 ft. high. This plain is cultivated throughout, and is very productive, the vegetation, which resembles that of the south of France, consisting wholly of imported species. II. A city, capital of the department and province, situated at the E. end of an extensive plain, 8,370 ft. above the sea, 122 m. N. N. W. of Sucre; lat. 17° 27' S., lon. 05° 46' W.; pop. about 40,000. It is built on both banks of the Rio do Rocha, which, as well as the Tamborada joining it just below, generally overflows in the rainy season, but is nearly dry during the rest of the year.
The houses, mostly of but one story in height, are surrounded by gardens, and the city consequently covers much space. In the centre is a grand plaza, around which are four churches and the cdbildo or government house, the latter a large plain building. There are in all 15 churches. The streets are broad and well kept, but the squares, used as market places, are generally littered with wares and goods and crowded with Indians. The prevailing language is the Quiehua; good Spanish is spoken by persons of rank only. Cochabamba, situated in a comparatively isolated valley and devoted to agriculture, has not only escaped the decline which has overtaken most of the other Bolivian towns, but has continued to prosper and increase. It has considerable manufactures, particularly of cotton cloths. Glass ware is made also to some extent. In 1579 Cochabamba, then recently founded, was named Oropesa by the viceroy of Lima, and the name is sometimes found in maps and documents, but is now unknown in Bolivia. The women of the place distinguished themselves by their daring and patriotism in 1815, during the war of independence.