A province of the Argentine Republic, between lat. 25° 30' and 30° S., and lon. 53° 30' and 59° 50' W., bounded N. by Paraguay and Brazil, E. by Brazil, S. by the province of Entre Rios, and W. by the Gran Chaco; area, 60,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1869,120,-198. It is surrounded by rivers, having the Urnguay on the east, the Parana on the west and north, and the Corricntes" on the south. A large portion of the province in the south is covered by forests, furnishing excellent ship timber. The north is marshy, and contains the remarkable lake of Ibera, which covers over 1,000 sq. m. The soil is fertile, and produces rice, sugar, tobacco, cotton, indigo, etc, abundantly; but the inhabitants are mostly employed in the raising of cattle, horses, and sheep. II. The capital of the province, on the left bank of the Parana, 20 m. below its junction with the Paraguay, and 485 m. N. by W. of Buenos Ayres, in lat. 27° 32' S., lon. 58° 44' W.; pop. in 1869, 10,670. The city is laid out with streets intersecting at right angles. There are several churches of some architectural pretensions, a cabildo or government house, and a college. The buildings are generally of one story, supplied with broad galleries.
The better class of dwellings are of brick, with open courts adorned with orange trees and flowers. The town has an extended water front, and the anchorage admits of a near approach to the shore. It is well situated for commercial purposes, being the entrepot for trade between the upper part of the Paraguay and the Parana and the seaports on the coast. It is the principal market of the Chaco Indians for furs, and exports hides and wool.