Cuzco. I. A Central Department Of Peru, lying chiefly between lat. 13° and 15° S., and lon. 70° and 73° W., comprehending all the region drained by the affluents of the Yilca-maya and the upper course of the Apurimac, and divided into 11 provinces; area, about 45,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 464,000, the majority of whom are Indians. The department abounds in mines. The principal objects of trade are woollen and cotton goods, and leather manufactured by the inhabitants. II. A city, capital of the province and department of the same name, situated in a valley about 11,000 ft. above the level of the sea, between the rivers Apurimac and Urubamba, lat. 13° 30' 55" S., lon. 72° 4' 10" W., 345 m. E. S. E. of Lima; pop. about 50,000, of whom about 15,-000 are Indians, distinguished for their industry. The city is regularly laid out, and has a large square in the centre, from which wide and straight streets diverge. The dwelling houses are mostly of stone and roofed with red tiles. There are many fine public buildings, among them a cathedral, several convents, a university, two colleges, a mint, hospitals, and the buildings of the provincial government. The cathedral and the convent of St. Augustine are especially noted for handsome exteriors.

The local manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, leather, parchment, jewelry, embroidery, and carved furniture. Besides these, there is a considerable trade carried on in iron, timber, and vegetable ivory. - According to the national tradition, Cuzco was the most ancient city of Peru, having been founded in the 11th century by Manco Capac, the first inca, who established there the seat of his empire. The name, according to Garcilaso, signifies navel, and is equivalent to the umbilicus terrarum of the ancients. It was called the holy city, and contained a magnificent temple of the sun, richly adorned with gold and silver, to which pilgrims resorted from all parts of the empire. Portions of the walls of this splendid edifice are still to be seen in the Dominican convent which occupies its site. Besides the temple, there were from 300 to 400 inferior places of worship, and the pilgrimage to this Peruvian Mecca was as binding upon the Indian noble as that in the East upon the Moslem. Toward the north it was defended by a spur of the great Cordillera, on which rose a strong fortress, a stupendous specimen of Cyclopean architecture, the ruins of which are still visible; 20,000 men are said to have been employed on this structure, and 50 years consumed in building it.

In 1532 Atahuallpa's generals took possession of the famous city, and in the following year (probably on Nov. 15) Pizarro made his entrance into the Peruvian capital. The population of the city was computed at that time by one of the Spanish conquerors at 200,000, and that of the suburbs at as many more; but although this estimate is probably exaggerated, all accounts agree in the remarkable prosperity and beauty of the city, which surpassed all that the Spaniards had yet seen in the new world. The neighborhood of Cuzco frequently became the theatre of chivalrous combats between the Spaniards and the incas, which, according to Prescott, " wanted only the song of the minstrel to throw around it a glory like that which rested on the last days of the Moslems of Spain." The rapacity of the Spanish conquerors soon stripped Cuzco of its ancient splendor; but the appearance of the city and the structure of the houses, many of which still retain the walls of the ancient buildings, recall the glorious era of the incas. The remarkable highway which led over the mountains from Cuzco to the northern part of Peru is still in existence, and is called the incas' road.

Cuzco, along with the rest of Peru, proclaimed its independence of Spain in 1821. On Aug. 9, 1835, a victory was achieved there by the Bolivian Gen. Santa Cruz over Gamarra, the commander of the Peruvian forces.

Cuzco.

Cuzco.