Emilio Castelar, a Spanish statesman, born in Cadiz, Sept. 8, 1832. His father, an exchange broker at Alicante, and afterward at Cadiz, spent seven years in the English possessions, chiefly in Gibraltar, to escape from the sentence of death passed on him for his implication in liberal movements. He died in Madrid in 1839, leaving his family almost destitute. Emilio nevertheless received a superior education. He early published novels, and subsequently became known as a democratic journalist and orator. In December, 1856, he was the successful competitor for the chair of history and philosophy in the university of Madrid, delivering at the same time lectures on the history of civilization in the Athenseum. He was deprived of his position in 1864, after having founded with Carrascon the journal La Democracia. This was suppressed in 1866, owing to his participation in the disturbances of June 22, when he was sentenced to death, but escaped in disguise to SAvitzer-land and thence to France. When the revolution of September, 1868, began, he returned to Spain and was restored to his professorship.

He kindled the enthusiasm of the people by his eloquent appeals in favor of democracy, and was elected to the cortes for Saragossa and Lerida. In this body he opposed Prim and Serrano, and subsequently King Amadeus, and became the most popular leader of the republican party. In 1873 he actively promoted the declaration of the republic, and was chosen minister of foreign affairs Feb. 12, and president of Spain Sept. 7, with extraordinary powers. He has published Discursos parlamentarios (3 vols., Madrid, 1871), and Recuerdos de Italia (translated by Mrs. Arthur Arnold, "Old Rome and New Italy," London, 1873).