Friedrich Krupp, a German manufacturer, born at Essen, Rhenish Prussia, early in the present century. He succeeded his father, Alfred Krupp, as proprietor of the cast-steel works at Essen, and sent to the London exhibition of 1851 a crucible block weighing 2 1/4 tons, and to the Paris exhibition of 1867 one of 40 tons. He gradually developed the Essen works, which had come into his father's possession in 1826, to an enormous extent. They covered in 1873 an area of 965 acres, and produced more than 125,000 tons of cast steel, besides great quantities of finished articles. The works are connected with the main Rhenish railway lines, and contain more than 30 m. of rail tracks to facilitate the traffic, and there are 30 telegraph stations in the establishment. About 12,000 men are employed here, besides 5,000 in the mines and smelting works, and others in other departments, making a total of about 20,000. Krupp has built for his officers and men good dwelling houses and hospitals. A sick, burial, and pension fund had an income in 1873 of $80,000, and the expenditures amounted to about $60,000. Another fund secures free medical attendance upon an annual payment of 75 cents.

The works at Essen in 1874 included 1,100 smelting and other furnaces, 275 coke ovens, 264 smiths' forges, 300 steam boilers, 71 steam hammers, including a monster hammer similar to Nasmyth's, 286 steam engines with an aggregate of 10,000 horse power, 1,056 machine tools, a chemical laboratory, and photographic, lithographic, and printing and bookbinding establishments. A fire brigade of 70 men acts also as a police force, besides 166 watchmen. The consumption of coal in 1872 was 500,000 tons; coke, 125,000 tons; gas, 155,000,000 cubic feet, for 16,500 burners. The articles manufactured include guns, gun carriages, shot, boiler plates, rolls, spring steel, machinery, axles, wheels, rails, and springs for railways and mines, and shafts for steamers. Krupp was the first to introduce unwelded cast-steel tires for use on railways. He owns extensive coal and iron mines in various parts of Germany, besides having concessions of iron mines in Spain. His smelting works, chiefly on the Rhine, contain nearly 300 coke ovens, and annually produce 120,000 tons of pig iron. He accepted the title of privy commercial councillor, but in 1864 declined patents of nobility. To the Vienna exhibition of 1873 he sent remarkable specimens, comprising siege guns and other pieces of artillery, and ammunition.

In 1874 he received so many orders from various governments that he negotiated a loan of 12,000,000 thalers for the extension of his works.