Gray , a town of France, in the department of Haute-Saone, on the left bank of the river Saone, 30 m. S. W. of Vesoul; pop. in 1866, 6,764. It is on a hill, in the form of an amphitheatre, and the streets are narrow, but the town is pretty well built. The river is spanned by a suspension bridge and one of stone. There are a college, a public library, and a theatre. The chief manufactures are hair cloth, woollen goods, leather, and starch. In the environs are several iron works. Gray is a very ancient town, and was the last place in Franche-Comte which submitted to Louis XIV. in 1668.
Gray ,.I. John Edward, an English naturalist, horn at Walsall in 1800. For nearly 50 years he has been connected with the British museum, over the natural history department of which he now presides (1874). In addition to his labors in arranging the collections of the museum, he has been a voluminous contributor to natural history, particularly in the department of zoology; and profiting by the advantages which his position has afforded him, he has probably described and classified a larger number of animal forms than any other naturalist. The most valuable of his numerous works are the catalogues of the museum, including those on mollusca, mammalia, and reptiles, in which, besides the lists of animals, he gives much information on the habits, character, and uses of the different species. His writings are comprised under the following heads : the general subject of natural history, the mammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes, articulate animals, the mollusca, and the radiata. His papers on the mammalia and the mollusca in 1852 amounted to considerably over 100 in each department, those on the latter subject being particularly valuable on account of their extensive and exact information.
The most important of them is the " Systematic Arrangement of Molluscous Animals, with Characters of Families." In his conchological studies he has received much assistance from his wife, an accomplished naturalist, and the author of "Figures of Molluscous Animals for the Use of Students," descriptions of which have been given by Mr. Gray. A larger share of his attention has however been devoted to herpetology than to any other branch of natural science, and more than 70 papers describing the structure and habits of species from many parts of the world are included among his writings. Dr. Gray has been prominent in the work of reforming prison discipline and in sanitary measures, founded the Greenwich society of useful knowledge, and claims to have originated the plan of cheap postage prepaid by stamps. 11. George Robert, an English naturalist, brother of the preceding, born at Little Chelsea, July 8, 1808. He early began the study of zoology at the British museum, was employed in the zoological department from 1831, and in 1869 became assistant keeper of the zoological collections.
He is the author of several works and papers on entomology and ornithology, and in 1832 contributed the entomological portion to the English edition of Cuvier's "Animal Kingdom." He published a "List of the Genera of Birds," reedited in 1841 and in 1855. His large work, "Genera of Birds " (3 vols., 1837-'49), is universally valued by naturalists. In 1870 he published" his " Hand List of the Genera and Species of Birds," embracing 2,915 genera and subgenera, and 11,162 species.