Hanno , a Carthaginian navigator of the 5th or 6th century B. C. He was commissioned by the government of Carthage to explore the western coast of Africa, and to plant colonies there. Setting sail accordingly with 60 pente-conters (vessels of 50 oars each), carrying 30,-000 men and women, he passed the pillars of Hercules, and voyaged along the African coast as far as lat. 8° N., according to some writers. On returning to Carthage he caused an account of his voyage to be inscribed on a tablet, and then dedicated it in the temple of Saturn. It seems to have been written in the Punic language; the version of it which remains is only a Greek translation. According to this tablet, known as a Periplus, it appears that one city was built not far from the strait of Gibraltar, and a few others along the coast, reaching to Cape Bojador. The first edition of Hanno's Periplus appeared at Basel in 1534, as an appendix to the edition of Arrian by Gelenius. It has also been published by Hudson in the first volume of his Geographi Minores (Oxford, 1698); and in 1797 an English translation of it by Falconer was issued from the Oxford press. It is still an open question at what time this Hanno lived, whose son he was, and how much of the statements of the Periplus can be regarded as trustworthy.
Some authorities believe him to be either the father or the son of the Hamilcar who fell at Himera in 480 B. C. Others compute that the voyage was made about 570. The Periplus has recently been cited as evidence of the existence of the gorilla in those days.
Hanno , surnamed the Great, a Carthaginian general and statesman, contemporary with Hamilcar Barca and Hannibal, died in old age, after the battle of Zama, 202 B. C. While yet a very young man he commanded a division of the Carthaginian army in Africa during the first Punic war, and took Hecatompylus, an opulent city of that continent. When the mercenaries returned from Sicily after the termination of the first Punic war, Hanno was deputed to propose to them that they should waive their right to a part of the arrears due them; and when they refused to accede to this and took up arms to enforce their claim, ho was appointed to command the army sent to subdue them. His military abilities were not equal to the accomplishment of the enterprise, and in a little time Hamilcar, his political rival and opponent, was associated in the command with him. Hanno was afterward superseded by the suffrages of the soldiers, and a new colleague given to Hamilcar. This new general being soon after taken prisoner and killed by the mutineers, a formal reconciliation was effected between the two rivals, and Hanno was restored to his command. The fortune of war now turned against the mercenaries, who were defeated in a great battle, stripped of their strongholds, and at length completely subdued.
From the termination of this war Hanno figures rather as a politician than a warrior. He was the head of the aristocratic party at Carthage, and the great enemy of Hamilcar and his sons, whose policy he invariably opposed.