Ivan Fedoroviteh Paskevitch, prince of Warsaw, a Russian soldier, born in Poltava, May 19, 1782, died in Warsaw, Feb. 1, 1856. He was educated at St. Petersburg, became a page of the emperor Paul, and in 1800 entered the army. He served with distinction in the earlier campaigns of the reign of Alexander I., and in those of 1812-14 at Smolensk, Moscow, Leipsic, and in France. In 1826, on the outbreak of the war against Persia, he was appointed by Nicholas to command under Yermo-loff. Having achieved considerable successes over the Persians under Abbas Mirza, he succeeded Yermoloff in the chief command in 1827, and in October captured Erivan. He was rewarded by Nicholas with a million rubles and the title of count of Erivan. Paskevitch now crossed the Aras, and by a rapid advance entered the city of Tabriz. After the peace of Turkmantchai, concluded Feb. 22, 1828, he commanded in the east in the war against Turkey, while the principal Russian army was engaged on the line of the lower Danube and the Balkan. Anapa, Poti, Kars, and Akhal-tzik were taken in the summer of that year; and advancing through mountain passes in 1829, Paskevitch surprised a large army under the seraskier.
Assisted by the treachery of the janizaries, he took Erzerum, July 9, and pushed forward toward Trebizond, in'the vicinity of which he received the news of the peace of Adrianople. Made field marshal and governor of the province of Georgia, he checked the rising of the Lesghian mountaineers in 1830, and in 1831 was appointed commander-in-chief of the armies in Poland. He crossed the Vistula near the Prussian frontier, and advanced on the right bank of that river toward Warsaw, which after a desperate struggle capitulated (Sept. 8). The conqueror received the title of prince of Warsaw, and was made governor of Poland, which was now stripped of its constitutional semi-independence, and transformed into a Russian province, though maintaining some institutions of a separate administration. Paskevitch not only discharged his duty to the entire satisfaction of his master, but by his moderation also gained some popularity among the Polish people. Various attempts at a new rising, the most serious of which was that of 1846, were speedily suppressed.
Nicholas, having already attempted an invasion of Hungary from the south in January, 1849, in the ensuing spring placed Paskevitch at the head of an army of more than 200,000 men, which simultaneously crossed the northern, northwestern, and southeastern Carpathians, acting in part independently, and in part in conjunction with the Aus-trians. No brilliant victory was now achieved by Paskevitch, his principal merit consisting in cautiously avoiding dangers, while the Hungarians were slowly crushed by the weight of converging masses. Gorgey's surrender at Vilagos (Aug. 13) having virtually ended the struggle, Paskevitch returned to Warsaw, where he received new honors. A grand jubilee soon after took place in that city on the 50th anniversary of his entrance into the army, and he was made a field marshal by both the emperor of Austria and the king of Prussia. In April, 1854, he took command of the principal Russian army in the war against Turkey, after the first disastrous campaign on the Danube; but having been wounded before Silistria (June 8), which he failed to conquer, he resigned.