James Fitz-James Berwick, duke of, an English and French soldier, born in 1670, killed at Philippsburg, June 12, 1734. He was an illegitimate son of James II. by Arabella Churchill, sister of the duke of Marlborough, and was raised to the peerage in 1687 as Baron Bos-worth, earl of Tinmouth, and duke of Berwick-on-Tweed; but these titles became forfeited in 1695, when he was attainted. He accompanied his father to France, and in 1690 to Ireland, where he distinguished himself at the siege of Londonderry and the battle of the Boyne. He acquired reputation in the French service under Louis XIV., who in 1693 made him lieutenant general and in 1706 marshal. For his successful expedition in aid of Philip V. of Spain in 1704 he was made grandee by that king. Recalled to France, he fought the Ca-misards, and conquered Nice, but subsequently resumed the command in Spain, and in 1707 achieved over the combined English and Portuguese forces the brilliant and decisive victory of Almanza, for which Philip V. granted him the dignity of duke and the towns of Liria and Xerica. On his return to France he was placed at the head of the army on the Rhine, in 1719 commanded against Philip V. in Spain, and fell, after many gallant achievements, at the siege of Philippsburg. His first wife was the widow of the earl of Lucan and a daughter of the earl of Clanricarde, by whom he had issue James Francis, duke of Liria and Xerica, whose posterity perpetuate the senior branch of the Berwick familv.
His second wife, Anne Bulkeley, bore him several children, the eldest of whom inherited the title of duke de Fitz-James, that had been conferred upon him in France. The spurious Memoires du marechal de Berwick (2 vols., Hague, 1737-8) were followed by the genuine Memoires, published by the duke de Fitz-James and revised by the abbe Hook (2 vols., Paris, 1778).