John Barclay, a Scottish anatomist, born in Perthshire in 1760, died in Edinburgh in 1826. He studied divinity at the united college of St. Andrews, was licensed as a preacher, visited Edinburgh as tutor in the family of Sir James Campbell, where he commenced the study of anatomy, acted as assistant to Mr. John Bell, and graduated in 1796, when he went to London and studied under Dr. Marshall. On his return to Edinburgh in 1797, he gave lectures on anatomy. He published several works on anatomy, and made some efforts toward reforming the system of anatomical nomenclature. He bequeathed his valuable anatomical collection to the royal college of surgeons of Edinburgh, where it is known as the Barclay an museum.
John Barclay, an English Latin author, son of William Barclay, born at Pont-a-Mousson, France, Jan. 28, 1582, died in Rome, Aug. 12, 1621. He was educated at the Jesuits' college of Pont-a-Mousson, and the Jesuits endeavored to induce him to join their order; but his father refused to give his consent and took him to England in 1603. At the beginning of the following year he presented James I. with a Latin poem entitled Kalendaz Januarice, and afterward dedicated to him the first part of Euphormionis Lusinii Satyricon. He was not successful in obtaining preferment in England on account of being a Catholic, and returned more than once to France, and married there. He resided in England from 1606 to 1615. In 1609 he published his father's work De Potes-tate Papce. This was attacked by Cardinal Bellarmin, and John Barclay published a large volume in Latin in answer to the cardinal, to which a reply was made by the Jesuit Eudse-mon. The fourth part of the Satyricon was published in 1614. It is a satirical romance directed against the Jesuits. His resources in England being scanty, he went to Paris in 1615 and remained there until the following year, when he removed to Rome on the invitation of Pope Paul V. He published at Rome an Apologia pro se (often printed with the Satyricon), in which he defended himself against the charges of heresy brought against him by the Jesuits, and his Paranesis ad Sectarios. He was treated with great kindness at Rome, but not obtaining any appointment devoted himself to literary pursuits and to the cultiva-tion of flowers.
He shared in the passion for the tulip which then began to spread through-out Europe. Here he composed the Argents (London, 1621), his most celebrated work, a prose romance in Latin, in which political ques-tions are discussed with great spirit and originality in feigned dialogue. This book was a favorite with Cardinal Richelieu and Leibnitz, was more read than any other work of its day, and has been translated into almost every language of Europe. Its Latin style is highly praised by Grotius.