John Bell, an American lawyer and statesman, born near Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1797, died at Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn., Sept. 10, 1869. He was the son of a farmer in moderate circumstances, who gave him a good education at Cumberland college (now Nashville university). He was admitted to the bar in 1816, settled at Franklin, Williamson county, and was elected to the state senate in 1817, when only 20 years old. He soon saw his error in entering so early into public life, and declining a reelection, devoted himself for the next nine years to his profession. In 1826 he became a candidate for congress against Felix Grundy, one of the most popular men in the state, who had the powerful support of Andrew Jackson, then a candidate for the presidency. Mr. Bell was nevertheless elected in 1827, by 1,000 majority, and continued a member of the house of representatives for 14 years. Though at first an ardent supporter of the doctrine of | free trade, he was led to change his views, and | afterward was ever an earnest advocate of the ptective system. He opposed the South Carolina doctrine of nullification, and was chairman of the committee to consider questions connected with the subject. For 10years he was chairman of the committee on Indian affairs.
He was in favor of a United States hank, though for reasons peculiar to the time he voted against the bill for its recharter in 1882. He protested against the removal of the deposits, and refused to vote for a resolution approving that measure. This refusal was one of the causes which led to the subsequent breach between himself and President Jackson and the democratic party, and finally to his cooperation with the whigs. This change of party relations was marked by his election as speaker of the house of representatives in 1834, in opposition to James K. Polk. The final paration between Mr. Bell and Gen. Jack-sun took place in 18:55, when Mr. Bell declared himself in favor of Judge White for the presidency, in opposition to Mr. Van Buren, and strongly aided White in carrying the state of Tennessee for almost the first time against the democratic party. When the question of the reception of petitions for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia was agitated in the house of representatives in 1836, Mr. Bell alone of the Tennessee delegation favored their reception, and, though assailed at home, was sustained by the people. In 1838, when Ath-erton's anti-petition resolutions were introduced, he voted against them.
In 1841 Mr. Bell became secretary of war in President Harrison's cabinet. With the rest of the cabinet, Mr. Webster only excepted, he resigned office on the separation of President Tyler from the whig party, in the autumn of that year. The whig majority in the next Tennessee legislature which met after his withdrawal from the cabinet ottered him the office of United States senator. This he declined, and remained in voluntary retirement until he was elected to the state senate in 1847. The same year he was elected to the United State senate, and reelected in 1853. He was especially promi-nent as an opponent of the annexation policy. In 1854, when the Nebraska bill was presented to the senate, Mr. Bell protested against its passing; and in the controversy on the admison of Kansas, in March, 1858, he took decided ground against the so-called Lecompton constitution, and in an elaborate speech charged that it tended directly to the overthrow of the Union. In 1860 he was nominated by the "Constitutional Union" party for president, with Edward Everett for vice president, and received the electoral votes of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Mr. Bell now retired from active public life, and during the civil war took no prominent pari in politics.
John Bell, an English sculptor and author, born in Norfolk in 1800, His best known artistic works are "The Eagle Slaver'1 (1887) "Dorothea" (1841), "The Babesia the Wood," and "Andromeda" (1851). For the new houses of parliament he made the statues of Lord Falkland and Sir Robert Walpole, and for Guildhall the Wellington monument. His "Guards Memorial" is in Waterloo place, Pall Mall, London; his statue of "Armed Science" and his "Crimean Artillery Memorial" are at Woolwich; and for the prince consort's memorial in Hyde Park he executed the group of "The United States directing the progress of America." He originated the principle of entasis and definite proportions applied to the obelisk, for which a medal was awarded to him by the society of arts in 1859. He is noted for not following classical models and for his realistic method. He has published " Compositions from the Liturgy," a "Free-hand Drawing Book for the Use of Artisans," "Primary Sensations of the Mind," and "The Drama of Ivan."