I. Saint, born in Rome, died there, April 12, 352. He was chosen pope, Feb. 6, 337. He sustained Athanasius in his contest with the Arians, and summoned a council in 342, in which the course of Athanasius was approved, and the pope addressed a letter in his defence to the church of Alexandria. At his instance a general council was held at Sardica in 347, for the purpose of averting the threatened schism between the churches, at which it is asserted that the right of arbitration in cases of deposition of bishops was reserved to the see of Rome. The feast of St. Julius is celebrated on April 12. Two letters of his are given in the Epistolce Romanorum Pontijicum. II. Giuliano della Rovere, born at Albisola Marina in 1441, died Feb. 21,1513. He was bishop successively of Carpentras, Albano, Ostia, Bologna, Avignon, and Mende, and was made cardinal by his uncle Sixtus IV., who also gave him command of the papal troops sent against the revolted Um-brians. His success in this war so increased his popularity, that Alexander VI. on assuming the tiara banished him from Rome. Julius returned to the camp, and contributed an important part in the conquest of Naples by Charles VIII., the rising of the Genoese, and the expulsion of Luigi Sforza. On the death of Alexander, Aug. 18, 1503, he caused the election of the aged Pius III., who survived his elevation only 26 days, and Julius himself was then chosen on the first ballot.
His first care on coming to the throne was to drive out Caesar Borgia from the Papal States, his next to strengthen and extend the power of the holy see. The refractory nobility at home were soon reduced to obedience, but the Venetians, who held Ravenna, Rimini, and other territories of the church, were a more formidable enemy. After fruitless negotiations, Julius joined in 1509 the famous league of Cambrai, formed by the emperor Maximilian, Louis XII. of France, and Ferdinand of Aragon, for the dismemberment of the Venetian republic. The troops of the league were everywhere successful; the doge sued for peace, and the pope, who had now got what he wanted, grew jealous of Louis, and willingly united with the Venetians to expel the French from Italy. Ferdinand was also led to view the success of Louis with uneasiness, and became a party to the "holy league," which was signed in October, 1511, and of which Henry VIII. of England afterward became a member. Julius took the field in person, and, after several campaigns of varying success, drove out the "barbarians," as he termed his former allies.
He could not so easily rid himself of the Swiss, German, and Spanish troops by whom he had effected this result, and in the midst of the disorder raised by his warlike and ambitious policy, he died without achieving for the holy see that preeminence which had been the whole aim of his pontificate. Julius was in heart and action a thorough soldier. He " made his tiara a helmet and his crosier a sword," and his disposition is well expressed in an old epigram:
Cum Petri nihil efficiant ad proelia claves, Auxilio Pauli forsitan ensis erit.
He was nevertheless regarded by the Italians as a friend to the liberation of their country, and the justice and wisdom of his internal administration gained him their affection. He laid the corner stone of St. Peter's church, and was a patron of Michel Angelo, Bramante, and Raphael. It was Julius II. who granted Henry VIII. a dispensation to marry Catharine of Aragon. He was succeeded by Leo X. III. Gian Maria del Monte, born in Arezzo, Sept. 10, 1487, died March 23, 1555. He belonged to a noble family, held several high offices under the papal government, was made cardinal in 1536, and succeeded Paul III. in 1550. He reopened the sittings of the council of Trent, which had been discontinued under his predecessor, and confirmed the institution of the Jesuits. He took part with Charles V. in his quarrel with Ottavio Farnese and the French, but was compelled to sign a truce with his enemies in April, 1552, soon after which he declared the suspension of the council of Trent, which had already been broken up by the Protestants, and retired to his luxurious villa near Rome. He reconciled England under Queen Mary with the holy see.
He was succeeded by Marcellus II.