Kronstadt (Hun. Brasso), a city in the Saxon division of Transylvania, Transleithan Austria, near the frontier of Wallachia, 65 m. E. S. E. of Hermannstadt; pop. in 1870, 27,766, of whom about 10,000 were Germans, 9,000 Roumans, 4,000 Magyars, and the remainder chiefly Jews and gypsies. It is the largest and most flourishing town in Transylvania, situated in a narrow valley enclosed by mountains. Charming villas on the slopes, with here and there an old castle on the heights, give a varied and picturesque aspect to the surrounding scenery. It consists of an inner town, which is encircled by a wall and entered by five gates, and three suburbs, of which one, called the upper town or Bolgar, extends into the mountain passes, winds up the slopes, covering them with beautiful country mansions and well kept gardens and orchards, and is the favorite residence of the wealthy Roumans. The principal streets of the inner town are well paved and clean, and the houses generally well built. It has a large market place, with two fountains, and at the main gate an esplanade covered with avenues of shady trees. There are three gymnasia, several other schools, a chamber of commerce, and military hospital.

Kronstadt has iron and copper works, paper mills, manufactures of woollen, linen, and leather, and carries on a brisk trade in the products of the region. - The foundation of Kronstadt is traced back to the early part of the 13th century. In the 16th it was the starting point of the reformation in Transylvania,, which was promoted by Honte-rus, a disciple of Melanchthon, who is said to have been in intimate correspondence with Luther, and to have also established the earliest printing press here (1533), its first productions being the Augsburg Confession and Luther's writings. Here, too, the first paper mill was erected. Kronstadt was formerly surrounded by strong fortifications, which are now in ruins. Northeast of the town is a small citadel, situated on the summit of an isolated hill, which was not without importance in the Hungarian war of 1848-'9.