Laybach, Or Laibach, a town of Austria, capital of the duchy of Carniola, situated on the river Laybach, near its entrance into the Save, 45 m. N. E. of Trieste, on the railway from Vienna; pop. in 1870, 23,032. The town occupies both banks of the river, which is here crossed by five bridges. Among the most remarkable buildings are the palace of Prince Auersperg, the town hall, the theatre, and the barracks. The former fortified castle on the Schlossberg, which was destroyed in 1813, has since been used as a provincial penitentiary, and now serves as a military depot and prison. The citv has 11 Catholic churches, several monas-teries, a Protestant church, two gymnasia, a Realscliule, a veterinary school, a provincial museum, manufactories of linen, woollen, and silk, a large sugar refinery, and oil, paper, and cotton mills. Laybach is a place of great antiquity, the seat of a bishop, of the civil and military government of the province, and of a chamber of commerce and industry. From 1809 to 1813 it was the seat of the French government of the Illyrian provinces.

A congress of European monarchs was held here in 1821 to regulate the affairs of Italy.