Carniola (Ger. Krain), a duchy in the Cis-leithan half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, bounded N. by Carinthia, N. E. by Styria, E. by Croatia, S. by Croatia and the Coastland, and W. by the Coastland; area, 3,857 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 400,334, of whom 93 per cent, were Slovens, the remainder mostly Germans. Nearly the entire population belongs to the Catholic church, all others numbering less than 1,500. It is a mountainous region, traversed by branches of the Julian Alps, abounding in grottoes, caverns, and underground passages, and presenting many snow-capped summits, several of which are about 10,000 ft. high. It is neither so well watered nor so fertile as the neighboring districts of the empire, the only rivers of note being the Save and the Kulpa, and the lakes being mostly very small. The southern part produces fruits and a line variety of flax; bees and silkworms are extensively reared, and in some districts wheat, barley, and the grape are largely cultivated. With minerals Carniola is richly gifted. Its famous quicksilver mines at Idria, next to Almaden in Spain the richest of Europe, once produced upward of 10,000 cwt. per annum, and still yield about 0,400 cwt. Iron, lead, coal, marble, clays, and precious stones are also found.

There are manufactures of iron, steel, fine linen, woollen, flannel, worsted stockings, lace, leather, wooden ware, etc. The exports comprise several of the above articles, together with hats, glass, wax, wine, and flour; and the imports, salt, oil, coffee, sugar, tobacco, cloths, cattle, and fruit. - Carniola was subdued by the Romans at an early period, and was occupied by Slavs in the 0th century. It was Christianized in the 8th century, became a margraviate in the 10th, was afterward partly under the sway of the dukes of Austria and Carinthia, and in the 12th century was erected into a duchy. It was then held by the powerful dukes of Tyrol, until the extinction of that family in 1335, when it passed into the hands of the counts of Gorz, who were succeeded by the house of Austria in 1364. By the treaty of Vienna in 1809 it was ceded to France and incorporated in the kingdom of Illyria, but restored to Austria in 1814. The Carniolan diet is composed of the Landeshaiipt-rnann, the prince-bishop of Laybach, and 30 delegates.

Capital, Laybach.