Lily, a word of ancient and uncertain origin, and one which has, according to Prior, been long used in some oriental languages for a flower in general. In common use it is often applied in combination to plants which are not botanically lilies, either to those of the same family, as the day lily (hemerocallis), or to plants widely separated in their botanical relationships, as water lily (nymphcea). The lily proper (lilium) is the type of a large family of monocotyledonous plants, the liliacece, as to the limits of which botanists are not agreed; some include the melanthacece, asparagece, etc, while others keep these as distinct orders. The genus lilium includes plants with scaly bulbs, from which arise simple leafy stems, bearing at the top one to many large showy flowers; the stem leaves are alternate or whorled, short and sessile; some species bear small bulblets in the axils of the leaves, which when mature fall to the ground and take root. The flower con-sists of six petal-like divisions or sepals, which are distinct or partly united below, and spreading or recurved above, forming a funnel-shaped or bell-shaped perianth, each of the divisions having a honey-bearing furrow at the base; stamens six, the lower end of the long filaments slightly adhering to the base of the corolla; anthers linear, erect, at length versatile; pistil one, with a three-celled ovary, a long style, and.a three-lobed stigma; fruit a three-celled dehiscent capsule, with two rows of flattened seeds, closely packed in each cell.

Five native species of lily are found east of the Mississippi, and several are peculiar to the Pacific coast. The commonest of these is the wild yellow lily, L. Canadense, which is found in moist meadows from Canada to Georgia; the sepals are sessile, recurved above the middle, orange-colored, and spotted inside with dark brown. The orange-red lily, L. Phila-delphicum, has darker-colored spotted flowers, grows in drier situations, and is readily distinguished from the preceding by having the sepals contracted below into a claw, and the flowers are more erect. The southern red lily, L. Catesbcei, has its sepals similarly narrowed below, and bears a solitary scarlet flower which is spotted within; this is found in pine barrens from Florida to Kentucky. The most showy eastern species is the Turk's-cap lily, L. superbum, which is not rare in rich moist ground as far south as Georgia; the stem is from 3 to 8 ft. high, sometimes producing only 3 or 4 flowers, but often as many as 30 or 40, in a large pyramidal raceme; the sepals are strongly revolute on the margin, of a fine orange or orange-red color, with abundant purple spots; this magnificent plant is well worthy of cultivation, and though it is seldom seen in our gardens, large quantities of bulbs are sent abroad to supply those of Europe. In the southernmost states L. superbum is replaced by L. Carolinianum, which differs from it in its broader leaves, and fewer flowers more variegated with yellow; some botanists regard it as only a variety of L. sitperbum.

The most noticeable lily of the far west is L. Washing-tonianum of the sierras, which bears numerous pendulous flowers, at first pure white, but afterward tinged with lilac, and of the most exquisite odor; this species has been brought into cultivation, as have L. Humboldtii, with yellow, dark-spotted flowers, and L. Bloomeri-anum, a recently discovered species, with stems 10 ft. high, and orange purple-spotted flowers. - Among the many exotic species cultivated in gardens, the oldest and best known is the white lily, L. candidum, which was brought from the Levant some three centuries ago, as Gerarde in 1596 speaks of it as an old garden plant; this is the lily of poets and painters, and has long been regarded as the emblem of purity; in beauty, grace, and fragrance it is not excelled by more recent introductions. A variety has flowers marked with purplish red, and another has its leaves striped with yellow;

The Long flowered Lily (Lilium long iflonita).

The Long-flowered Lily (Lilium long-iflonita).

what is called the double white is a curious but inelegant monstrosity. The other white lilies of the garden are of more recent introduction. L. longiflorum, from Japan, is from 15 to 20 in. high, with one to three funnel-shaped flowers, 5 to 6 in. long and of exquisite fragrance; this is barely hardy near New York, but is admirable for pot culture. L. Japoni-cum is similar in habit, but larger in all respects. L. Brownii is also similar to these, but grows 3 or 4 ft. high, and has the pure white of its large flowers streaked on the outside with purple. The rare giant lily, L. gigan-teum, from Nepaul, has a stem nearly 10 ft. high, with 8 to 20 pendulous, fragrant flowers, which are white outside and tinged with violet within; the root leaves are broad and heart-shaped, and look unlike those of a lily. The Turk's-cap or Martagon lily, L. Martagon, a native of Europe, has long been in cultivation; the stem is 3 to 5 ft. high, with numerous small violet-purple flowers; this has produced several varieties, some nearly white; what is called the scarlet Martagon is L. Chalcedoni-oum, from Palestine, the vermilion-colored, unspotted flowers of which are exceedingly brilliant.

The well known tiger lily, L. tigrinum, is from China; it has a cottony stem 4 to 5 ft. high, and numerous orange-red, black-spotted flowers; it produces bulblets in the axils of the leaves, by means of which the plant may be readily propagated; there is a double variety of this, more showy than elegant. Another garden species also bears bulbs, L. bulbi-ferum, from southern Europe; this is different from the other in having erect, orange, scarcely spotted flowers. The introduction of what are now called the Japan lilies about 30 years ago caused great excitement among florists; when they were first brought out they were cultivated as greenhouse plants, but they are perfectly hardy, and being now grown in this country by the acre, the price has been reduced from $30 to $ 10 a single bulb to half that price by the hundred; the species is now regarded as L. speciosum, but it appears in most catalogues as L. lancifolium; little is known about it in the wild state, but it was found cultivated in several varieties by the Japanese. The stem is from 1 to 3 ft. high, with lance-ovate leaves, and a few very large flowers, with re-flexed wavy divisions, which are white, pale rose, or purplish; they have upon the inner surface numerous prominent warty projections, which are usually of a much darker color, and give the flower an elegantly fringed appearance.

Numerous seedling varieties have been produced, differing in color and markings; the variety monstrosum produces what are apparently several stems blended into one flattened mass, the surfaces of which are closely studded with flowers. The golden-banded lily, L. auratum, is also from Japan, and of comparatively recent introduction; as usually seen, the stem is only about 2 ft. high with two or three flowers, but when well cultivated the plant has reached the height of 6 or 7 ft. with nearly 100 blooms; the flowers are 0 to 10 or 12 in. across, white, with a clear yellow stripe running the whole length of the sepals, which are spotted with purple, and have bristly projections at the base; the odor is peculiar, and so powerful as to be oppressive to some persons. There is a variety with a crimson band instead of a yellow one, and another without any colored band. The first bulb of L. auratum sold in this country brought $90; much finer bulbs can now be had for 50 cents or less. Considerable numbers of these bulbs are produced by our florists, but the principal supply comes from Japan, where the plant grows wild in abundance. Many other lilies besides those named are given in works on floriculture and in the catalogues. - Lilies are generally grown in our gardens without any special care.

To have them in perfection, the soil should be prepared by working and manuring to the depth of 18 in.; the bulbs are usually set too shallow; the larger ones should not be less than 6 or 8 in. below the surface, and after the bulbs are once well planted they should rarely be disturbed; while tulips, hyacinths, and many other bulbs have their flowering qualities improved by an annual lifting and drying, this is not the case with the lily; for this reason imported bulbs, which have been out of the ground for some months, often require several years to become well established. Lilies are propagated in several ways.

Golden banded Lily (Lilium auratum).

Golden-banded Lily (Lilium auratum).

Bulb of Lily.

Bulb of Lily.

Raising them from seed is slow, and is not often resorted to, save to obtain new varieties. A few species are increased by planting the bulblets borne upon the stem; in some the bulbs increase in number either by producing small ones at the base of the old bulb, or some inches distant, at the end of a rhizome. Layering the stem is sometimes practised, small bulbs being produced at the point of attachment of the leaf; this kind of layering takes place naturally when the bulb is planted sufficiently deep. (See Layering.) Still another method of propagation is by means of the bulb scales, which are broken off from their attachment to the base of the bulb and placed in a pot or box of soil; this is done in autumn, and the earth containing the scales is kept all winter at a temperature of 50° or 60°; by spring each scale will have formed one or more minute bulbs at its base, when the boxes containing them are set out in the open ground; in two or three years the bulbs will be sufficiently large to flower. - The African lily, agapanthus umbellatus, from the Cape of Good Hope, is an old-fashioned house plant of the same family. It has long flat leaves and a stem 1 to 2 ft. high, bearing an umbel of large blue flowers; there is a form with handsomely striped leaves.

It is not hardy, but is frequently turned out to bloom in the borders. Day lily is a name applied to plants of two genera of the lily family. One of the oldest inhabitants of the gardens is the tawny day lily, hemerocallis fulva; it has a tuberous root stock, and forms large clumps of long, linear, keeled leaves; the flower stems arise above the leaves and bear a few lily-shaped, yellowish copper-colored flowers, which remain open but for a day; in many places it has escaped from gardens and is naturalized along roadsides. H. flava is a more slender plant, with light yellow flowers, and there are several others cultivated. Fun-Ma, a genus separated from hemerocallis, comprises plants with broad leaves with white or blue flowers, which are also called day lilies; F. subcordata, white, and F. ovata, blue, are the most common species. Lily of the Nile is one of the names for Richardia Africana, also called calla AEthiopica. (See Calla.) Pond lily and water lily are common names for nu-phar and nymphcea. (See Water Lily.)